View Full Version : Leopard Gecko Caresheet (Eublepharis macularius)...demo video & 4 Jan 2013 update

Elizabeth Freer
02-05-2011, 06:32 AM
To find the Table of Contents (post 142 by way of left side numbers) click: Leo Care Sheet Table of Contents (http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/gecko-care-sheets/55211-leopard-gecko-caresheet-eublepharis-macularius-demo-video-4-jan-2013-update-15.html#post473888)

For a short version of my Leo Care Sheet please click: Leopard Gecko Care Sheet (abbreviated) -- January 2020 update (show handout) (http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/gecko-care-sheets/55211-leopard-gecko-caresheet-eublepharis-macularius-demo-video-4-jan-2013-update-9.html#post417435)

:banana: Join Geckos Unlimited today for the inside scoop on leos and other geckos! :banana:

:cheer: to all Geckos Unlimited members whose inquiries and suggestions encourage me to add additional recommendations all the time!

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Please read BEFORE purchasing supplies

Avoid buying a "10 gallon starter kit" with or without calci-sand. Much of that stuff is useless. Gather your leopard gecko's stuff by becoming an informed consumer.

Avoid using UVB for a 10 gallon enclosure! A 10 gallon enclosure (20 x 10.25 x 12 inches tall) has inadequate space for a leo to escape from the UVB rays when he wants.

"Never mix bleach with vinegar, ammonia, or many other products, just with water. Mixing it with vinegar releases toxic chlorine gas which is used in chemical warfare. Even if it's just a weak solution, the gas can still irritate your eyes and lungs, possibly causing long-term health problems." (Hilde)

Cleaning Products You Should Never Mix - Cleaning Tips (http://www.goodhousekeeping.com/home/cleaning/tips/a32773/cleaning-products-never-mix/)

Hamster/rodent wheels are UNSAFE for leopard geckos.

Pastrygeckos - Lizards in hamster wheels/balls (http://pastrygeckos.tumblr.com/post/106573258809/lizards-in-hamster-wheels-balls) (majahawt)
http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/leopard-geckos-husbandry-housing-and-heating/81963-leo-enrichment-hamster-wheels.html (Hilde)

Diatomaceous Earth Alert: Some poultry/chicken feeds contain diatomaceous earth. Both Albers All Purpose Poultry Feed and Purina Layena Crumbles do NOT contain diatomaceous earth. For further information click: http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/leopard-geckos-food-feeding-issues/68574-cricket-guidelines.html (hmarie186)

Avoid cedar, pine, fir ?, and willow ? in reptile enclosures. Cedar fumes and oils are highly toxic to reptiles; pine fumes and oils are toxic as well!

Use of Cedar as a Substrate for Reptiles and Other Pets (http://www.anapsid.org/cedar.html)

Check the calcium-to-phosphorus ratio of any food fed to crickets or worms. We wish to achieve a 1.5-2.0 calcium to a 1.0 phosphorus ratio in the foods we feed geckos. Click the reliable United Department of Agriculture link to do that: Foods List (http://ndb.nal.usda.gov/ndb/search/list)

Petco has frequent $1-per-gallon sales. One can't beat this sale to purchase your initial enclosure or to give your leo an upgrade!!!

Harbor Freight is a good source for digital scales with excellent specs! (Tokaybyt)

For the short version of my Leo Caresheet scroll to post #81. For the "bare bones only" version scroll to post #87.

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Leopard Gecko Care Sheet
Eublepharis macularius
Geckos Unlimited & Pacific Northwest Herpetological Society
March 2020 (update)

To view click Leopard Gecko Setup, not the arrow:

Updates to video

No supplements in the enclosure at all
By omitting a background your leo will have more ground space to explore. Some leos will climb a background, but then fall off and could get hurt.
Click for humid hide in video: Amazon.com : Exo Terra Gecko Cave for Reptiles, Medium : Pet Habitat Decor Hideouts : Pet Supplies (http://www.amazon.com/Exo-Terra-Gecko-Reptiles-Medium/dp/B008YDHDD2/ref=sr_1_3?ie=UTF8&qid=1416443144&sr=8-3&keywords=exo+terra+cave)

Eublepharis macularius was first described by zoologist Edward Blyth in 1854.

Leopard geckos are crepuscular. They are active at dusk, during the night, and at dawn. Leos are also thigmotherms. Leopard geckos do not have endolymphatic sacs which store calcium like some other gecko species do.

A leopard gecko's preferred body temperature (PBT) is 86*F. That's 30*C.

(1) Quarantine Recommendations
Any new gecko should be quarantined for a minimum of 90 days. That gives adequate time to check for parasites, cryptosporidiosis, and the beginnings of coccidia plus. 3-6 months quarantine are recommended if your new gecko is imported or wild caught.

Set up the new animal as far as possible from your current animals.
Set up the quarantined animal as simply as possible -- with a paper towel floor and homemade plastic hides that can be tossed, if necessary.
Feed the quarantined gecko last. (Maybe use vinyl gloves.)
Toss uneaten prey. Never share prey between geckos or toss uneaten prey back into the feeding bin!
Do not share any supplies such as thermometer probes or feeding tongs between cages.
Wash hands thoroughly between handling geckos.

The quarantine area should ideally be in a separate room apart from your established geckos. Stringent sanitation methods MUST be followed!

(2) Never keep two male leopard geckos together

(3) Best to Keep Leopard Geckos Alone Caution: graphic photos!
Leopard geckos are solitary creatures. Handling stresses leos. Leopard geckos do not benefit from either a mate of the opposite sex or a "friend" of the same sex. Leos of different sizes should not be kept together. It's simply not worth the risks.

Contributed by orbela in Jan 2014. May 2011 article ===> Leopard gecko swallows smaller leopard gecko.
Click: https://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&q=cache:2WP-kr_7uzEJ:www.herpetologynotes.seh-herpetology.org/Volume4_PDFs/Bonke_et_al_Herpetology_Notes_Volume4_pages211-212.pdf+natural+history+Eublepharis+geckos&hl=en&pid=bl&srcid=ADGEESggtkgUOZDfMS_wr2hIrjdkwkNsVQ4Gw47qnzmf VfR6AYNf4Mn7o2FZhy77hRVYZ011I0lMB6fZ9nDONKEBJBTVd4 JM0Uv-VVof5tuEc_RqAPufOc5mXGsX7XciVoCnWo6FBy6R&sig=AHIEtbRfaIYuPGifPrRIebPOrE75crIJ2Q


Contributed by Saskia in May 2013. These photos show the grave condition of a female leopard gecko the morning after the pair had been introduced for breeding. The breeder assumed that this male-female pair would get along. Clearly this was NOT the case.
Warning: GRAPHIC
Click: http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/leopard-geckos-husbandry-housing-heating/69423-housing-2-geckos-together-agressive-behaviour-badly-injured-female-pictures.html


Much smaller leo bitten by giant leo causing a broken leg:
Click: http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/leopard-geckos-health-diseases/71950-need-some-advice-leo-broken-leg.html

(4) Sexing Leopard Geckos -- A leopard gecko's gender can be confirmed when that leo is over 5 inches in total length. That may happen when the leo is near 6 months old. Males can be distinguished from females by a distinct /\-shaped row of pores above the vent and by two hemipenal bulges below the vent. To see their vents, potential male pores, and hemipenal bulges gently press their bodies up against the glass. They'll squirm if you try to turn them over.

Click here for a photo: Sexing Leopard Geckos (http://www.reptilecare.com/leopardgender.htm)
(5) Posting Photos/Videos...inline or attached
Follow Hilde's red arrows. [2019: Insert Hilde's 2 screenshots.]

48024 48025
(click to enlarge)

Click: vBulletin FAQ (http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/faq.php?faq=vb_faq#faq_posting_photos)

To insert a video find 3 lines of choices at the top where you make a post. On the second line, 15 icons in from the left, you'll see the video icon. It looks like a ladder. Click this video icon & paste your video URL right there. Your video and arrow like you may have noticed here will be displayed, not just a link.
To insert a photo use the "image" icon next to the "ladder" icon.

Click: Go Advanced under the reply box
Then click: Manage Attachments
First upload your images or video to a free Imgur or YouTube account.
Then use that jpeg or URL to upload your image or video onto Geckos Unlimited.
Click "insert image url" OR "insert video url"
Then copy & paste

Imgur and YouTube offer free online sites for sharing photos and videos.

Here's another way to post a picture.

At the foot of your post click the Edit Post button.
Then click Go Advanced button.
Scroll all the way down to Management Attachments. Click.
Click: Add Files. Select a photo from your files and upload it.
Drag that photo into the box beneath.
***Click both buttons on the right: "Insert Inline" and then click "Done".
(6) Images upside down or sideways? Here's the fix.

Go to the picture in your gallery, look to the bottom right, under "User Options" in the blue bar, you'll see "Edit Photo".
That takes you to the edit options. It will display a thumbnail of that picture, and the flip or rotate options are listed below it.
"Could this option not be available for mobile users? I am not seeing what you are speaking about."
Click on your photo when you get to that screen. It should go to the one with the options.
When you're done, save the changes.
For the actual thread click: http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/n00b-central/83037-uploading-gallery.html#post472578
(7) Looking for an experienced reptile veterinarian for your geckos?
ARAV's Find A Vet: http://arav.site-ym.com/search/custom.asp?id=3661
Melissa Kaplan's International Herp Vet Listings: http://www.anapsid.org/vets/index.html#vetlist
Canadian Reptile Vets: Canadian Reptile Veterinarian listing (lizard, snake, turtle, tortoise, frog, salamander, amphibian) (http://www.triciaswaterdragon.com/canrepvt.htm#ont)
Veterinarians.com: Find a Veterinarian - Local Vets and Veterinary Clinics, Vet Services (http://www.localvets.com/) Just type in your zip code!
( 8 ) Herp Petsitters in the USA, Canada, & (abroad)
Click: Herp sitters List (US States A - M) - reptile, snake, lizard, turtle, tort, toad, frog, amphibian (http://www.triciaswaterdragon.com/sitter.htm)



A 20 gallon LONG enclosure (30 x 12.5 x 12.5 inches; 76.2 x 31.75 x 31.75 cm) makes it easy to maintain the appropriate thermal gradient for your leopard gecko. That size is excellent for a hatchling leo too.

A 20 gallon long is the minimum size enclosure for a normal-sized female adult leo (~9 inches total length & ~70 grams) or perhaps a male. For a larger leopard gecko I recommend either an Exo Terra viv 36 x 18 x 12 inches (90 x 45 x 30 cms) or a 40 gallon breeder viv (36 x 18 x 17 inches).

The larger your enclosure, the more exercise your leopard gecko will get! No enclosure we can provide replicates a leopard gecko's natural habitat.

For a ground dwelling reptile such as a leopard gecko, a minimum enclosure length 4x the leo's total length is highly suggested. Leopard geckos reach about 8 inches long at 1.5 years old. The average leopard gecko is 9 inches total length at maturity. So that's 4 x 9 = 36 inch long tank.

Exo Terra makes a glass tank 36 inches long x 18 (actually just 16 ??) inches wide x 12 inches tall with front doors for about $200 (January 2013 price).

Wooden/Melamine Enclosures
Wooden/melamine enclosures are excellent for leopard geckos. They offer a secure environment in which heat/humidity control is easy. Provide ventilation low on the cool end and high on the warm end. Heat overhead with a Ceramic Heat Emitter (CHE) or sandwich a heat mat (UTH) between 2 tiles that are elevated above the enclosure's floor. Add a 15 watt incandescent bulb dimmed to half power by a rheostat to provide a photoperiod.

Blocking off some of the top (when there's only ventilation on top) to keep humidity increases poor air circulation.

Heat + light = the sun
Avoid direct sunlight on the enclosure. Direct sunlight will cause potentially deadly overheating. Overhead bulb wattages vary depending upon the ambient room temperatures!

Leopard geckos benefit greatly from a "warm zone", not just a "warm spot". Your leopard gecko's entire body should fit within each temperature zone. If not, over time health problems can develop. Air temperatures within the enclosure are just as important as belly heat for keeping your leo active!

Provide Under Tank Heating (UTH) equal to 1/2 the enclosure's footprint as the main belly heat source.
If the air is cool, supplement belly heat with overhead heat via a ceramic heat emitter (CHE).
Add a 15 watt incandescent bulb housed in a 5.5 inch diameter fixture and dimmed to half power by a rheostat. That creates a photoperiod. :)

UTHs and CHEs each require separate thermostats.

For enclosures 30 inches and longer consider Arcadia's ShadeDweller lighting which was developed in 2018. Be sure to add the UVB lighting to the warm end of the enclosure.

Temperatures - A temperature gradient from warm to cool maintains your leo's health. Here's a temperature guide for all leopard geckos as measured with the probe of a digital thermometer or a temp gun (and controlled by a thermostat set at 91*F/32.8*C).

Place the thermostat's probe and a digital thermometer's probe together right on top of the substrate underneath the warm dry hide. If you use a UTH + a CHE you'll need 2 separate thermostats, because ground and air temperatures are substantially different.

Warm dry hide ground temperature: 88-92 F (31.1-33.3 C) inside a leo's warm dry hide.
Warm humid/moist hide: Also place the humid hide 100% on top of the heat mat. Keep temperatures similar to the warm dry hide.
Cool dry hide ground temperature: 70ish-75 F (21.1-23.9 C) Usually the cool end ground temperature matches the room temperature where the enclosure sits.
no greater than 82ish F (27.8ish C) air temperature - 4 inches (10 cm) above ground on the warm end
no greater than 75 F (23.9 C) air temperature - 4 inches (10 cm) above ground on the cool end
Leave the heat mat/UTH on 24/7. If you wish, during the night turn off overhead lighting/heating (~12 hours on and ~12 hours off) unless ambient room temperatures drop lower than 67ish*F (19.4*C).

(1) Under Tank Heat mat (UTH)
Your Under Tank Heat mat should cover 1/2 the enclosure's floor. Place one dry hide and the moist hide right on top of the heat mat.
10 gallon (20 x 10.25 x 12 inches tall): Use Zoo Med's 6 x 8 inch or possibly Zoo Med's 8 x 12 inch UTH.
15 gallon (24 x 12.5 x 12.5 inches high): Use Ultratherm's 11 x 11 inch heat mat.
20 gallon LONG (30 x 12 x 12 inches high): Use Ultratherm's 11 x 17 inch heat mat.
40 gallon BREEDER (36 x 18 x 17 inches high): Use two Ultratherm 8 x 17 heat mats or install 39 feet of heat cables over 1/2 the enclosure. The first 6 feet of heat cables are actually not heated.
***Ultratherms*** (high quality) are reusable. Snugly attach the heat mat underneath the glass enclosure with electrically safe Nashua tape around the edges and with tape rolls in the middle. When you purchase supplies directly from Amazon, you'll be able to return even electrical products if they do not meet your gecko's needs. Amazon Prime also provides free return shipping. Reptile Basics (336-308-5767) ----> 11 x 11 Ultratherms = $20, 11 x 17 Ultratherms = $22. The Bean Farm (877-708-5882) sells Ultratherm UTHs in 11 different sizes.

Using Insulation Underneath the Heat Pad......Keith -- April 2018
"I suggest that an Ultratherm UTH is a must. The Ultratherm needs foam insulation under it, directing the heat upward and into the enclosure. From what I understand, other brands call for air under the UTH, which just allows heat to be lost! The fact that the Ultratherms should have foam insulation under them rather than air also says volumes about their safety. I only know this because I’m still setting up my Vivarium as well."

Elevate your entire enclosure 1/4 inch to 1/2 inch off the stand to prevent house fires!!! Elevate the tank's corners with small stick-on pads (chair leg pads, Pink Pearl erasers, sturdy bottle caps, wooden blocks, hockey pucks). Wrought iron stands support the periphery of the tank, but are completely open on the bottom.
Heat cables work better for vivs with different dimensions than standard heat mats. The first 6 feet of heat cables are actually not heated.
Click: http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/leopard-geckos-husbandry-housing-and-heating/79270-repti-heat-cable.html#post450928
(2) Consider using Arcadia Reptiles' new Deep Heat Projector plugged into a pulse proportional thermostat set on the "dimming" function.

(3) Fluker's Repta-Clamp Lamp/Dome with Ceramic Heat Emitter (CHE) Click this one: http://www.amazon.com/Flukers-Repta-Clamp-Lamp-Switch/dp/B0002DHODQ It also comes with an inline dimmer/rheostat.
A Fluker's repta-clamp lamp fixture with a 10 inch (25.4 cm) diameter opening is important to direct warm air into the enclosure. Smaller domes are considerably less efficient, because a greater amount of heat escapes into the room.
Ceramic Heat Emitters are highly recommended for overhead domes because they emit only heat. Leo's eyes are very sensitive to bright lights. They CAN see red and other colored bulbs! Control the CHE either by a rheostat/dimmer (Lutron) or by a second thermostat.

(4) Photoperiod Dome containing Low Wattage Incandescent
A photoperiod is all about mimicking lighting (& heating) a particular reptile would experience in its natural environment. Short of having an expensive computer-controlled system that tweaks the lighting second by second, well minute by minute anyway, we can only approximate this goal.

Place a low wattage bulb (15 watt standard incandescent bulb) dimmed to half power inside a 5.5 inch diameter dome fixture in the center of the screen top and right next to the CHE. Buy the dome with an inline dimmer or a separate Lutron dimmer. Then connect it to a timer.

Click: Sunrise Sunset Daylight Hours of Pakistan -- Timebie (http://www.timebie.com/sun/pakistan.php)

For example, 11 hours ON in February is good.

In addition I somewhat shield the light from my photoperiod bulb by a tall silk palm tree in the center of the enclosure.
(5) Night Light for Viewing
Hagen/Exo-Terra's Night-Glo Moonlight bulb is highly recommended for night viewing, but only for a couple hours. It is visible to geckos; its purpose is to mimic moonlight. This moonlight bulb comes in these wattages: 15, 25, 40, 50, 75, 100, & 150 watts.
Click: Exo Terra : Night Heat Lamp (http://www.exo-terra.com/en/products/night_heat_lamp.php)

(6) UVB for Leopard Geckos
A known strength of UVB rays can benefit your leopard gecko if your leo is willing. When depending upon UVB for leopard geckos as a D3 source, Fran Baines, DVM (and lighting guru) strongly recommends supplementing @ 1 feeding per month with a good powdered calcium with vitamin D3 as a backup. Make certain there are ample hides so your leo can dodge the rays when he so wishes. Depending upon the height of the enclosure and the mesh/screen top grid, Zoo Med's 18 inch ReptiSun 5.0 UVB tube might produce adequate rays.

When your leo is housed in a 20 long (30 x 12 x 12 inches tall) enclosure, Dr. Fran Baines, DVM recommends a Zoo Med Reptisun 10.0 mini-compact fluorescent bulb.

Google the reptile specific Ferguson Zones Chart and check for leopard geckos to be safe with your setup. Use the Solarmeter 6.5R (UVI) to measure the strength of the rays. The Solarmeter 6.5R UV Index Meter has been updated with an attractive, informative graphics displaying the Ferguson Zones Chart at the top of the meter. Last time I checked, the Reptile Supply Company based in Sacramento. California had a good price on Solarmeter 6.5Rs.

(7) Consider Arcadia Reptiles' recent ShadeDweller lighting which was developed in 2018. From what I understand, these fixtures come in a couple different lengths.

(8 ) Exo Terra brand UVB bulbs or ceramic heat emitting bulbs are not recommended.

(9) Hot rocks are very unsafe.

Regarding any colored light bulbs. Use ceramic heat emitting bulbs.
http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/n00b-central/56996-night-light-can-someone-answer-please-4.html On this thread especially read Hilde's posts #40-42.
The Reptile Channel: Reptile Lighting Information (http://www.reptilechannel.com/reptile-health/reptile-natural-artificial-light.aspx)
A thermostat controls your under tank heater or overhead dome fixture. It provides your leopard gecko with stable and comfortable temperatures, saves $ on electricity, and lessens the chance of a house fire from accidental overheating.

Plug your UTH/heat mat or overhead dome fixture into the thermostat.
Plug the thermostat into the power strip.
Plug the power strip into the wall outlet.
Tape a digital thermometer's probe right onto the thermostat's probe to verify the thermostat's settings.
Place both probes on the floor of your leopard gecko's warm dry hide.
Check daily.

For a leopard gecko set the thermostat's control to turn off the heat source when the temps exceed 91*F (32.8*C). The temperature should drop NO LOWER than 88*F before the thermostat turns the heat source on again and begins heating.

Separate thermostats are required if you wish to achieve different temperatures with different devices like an UTH and an overhead dome.

Do NOT exceed the maximum wattage of your power strip or thermostat!

Proportional thermostats are more precise.

These are good thermostats:

Hydrofarm's Jump Start MTPRTC thermostat

Click: http://www.amazon.com/MTPRTC-ETL-Certified-Thermostat-Germination-Reptiles/dp/B000NZZG3S/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&qid=1453335881&sr=8-1&keywords=hydrofarm+mtprtc+digital+thermostat
It has a convenient digital readout and a small metal probe. This thermostat should vary no more than +/- 3 degrees F from its setting before it turns the heat source off or on.
Hydrofarm's Jump Start MTPRTC has a 5/8 inch diameter suction cup which slides up and down the probe's cord. Instead I use a small Adams suction cup with a slit (not a hook) to attach the cord to the side of the glass. Vegetable oil on the base of the suction cup really improves suction.
It's rated to 1,000 watts/8.3 amps.
My Jump Start's probe agrees with my digital thermometer's probe within 2*F.

Apollo's digital thermostat

Click: https://www.amazon.com/Apollo-Horticulture-68-108%C2%B0F-Thermostat-Controller/dp/B010GFADNM

Inkbird Thermostats: Inkbird manufactures 2 similar models that only control HEAT (no cooling). Both are rated to 1,200 watts. Both models have 2 sockets for controlling two separate heat mats or two separate CHE dome fixtures set at the same temperature. Each model has only 1 probe.

18 April 2018: Savannah shares: "Now is there an attachment you can buy where another probe plugs in."

Model #1: INK306T

Click: https://www.amazon.com/gp/product/B01DZ5NVBQ/ref=s9_dcacsd_dcoop_bw_c_x_4_w

Model #2: Inkbird ITC-306T

Click: https://www.amazon.com/Inkbird-Electronic-Temperature-Germination-Controlling/dp/B01486LZ50/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&qid=1490861330&sr=8-1&keywords=itc-306t
Inkbird's ITC-306T Digital 2-Outlet Heat Temperature Controller/thermostat has a built-in ultra-capacitor. When the ultra-capacitor is fully charged, this thermostat will work for more than 20 days without electricity.
blondebrown coat states: "I love it! It keeps very true temps, has a max/min customizable threshold, day and night temp settings, and an alarm if temps get out of whack."

Spyder Robotics' Proportional Thermostats: HerpStat Intro ($99) and the HerpStat Intro+ ($109).

For comparisons click: https://www.spyderrobotics.com/

Habistat CHT020 Pulse Proportional Thermostat
Click: http://www.amazon.co.uk/Habistat-CHT020-Pulse-Proportional-Thermostat/dp/B002SUF6RW

Helix DBS1000 Proportional Thermostat
Click: Helix DBS1000 Proportional Therm - Helix Proportional - Temperature Control - The Bean Farm (http://beanfarm.com/product_info.php?cPath=1238_1240&products_id=5686)

iPower thermostats

Both a reliable digital thermometer with a probe and an infrared temperature gun are recommended. A digital thermometer with a probe can measure either the air temperature or the ground temperature, whereas temperature guns measure the precise spot or range where the laser is aimed.

Dial-type (circle-analog) thermometers can be very inaccurate. At best they read "ballpark" temperatures Liquid crystal display (LCD) strip thermometers are basically worthless.

Temperature guns

GU's Zux (Shane) recommends this: Amazon.com: HDE Temperature Gun Infrared Thermometer w/ Laser Sight: Home Improvement (http://www.amazon.com/Temperature-Infrared-Thermometer-Laser-Sight/dp/B002YE3FS4/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&qid=1308676906&sr=8-1)

For more information click this thread and scroll to Zux's post 14: http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/leopard-geckos-health-and-diseases-/81307-leopard-gecko-poop-issues-2.html

Amazon.com: Pro Exotics PE2 Infrared Thermometer Temp Gun: Toys & Games (http://www.amazon.com/Pro-Exotics-Infrared-Thermometer-Temp/dp/B0009OBFW4/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&qid=1372403309&sr=8-1&keywords=pro+exotics+temp+gun). The latter can be purchased with a metal case for a bit more $.

Click: Digital Hygrometers - Weather Instruments, Weather Radios & Cupolas (http://www.theweatherstore.com/dihy.html)

Roughly textured tiles (ceramic, porcelain, or slate) make excellent, risk-free substrates. They conduct heat well from an UTH. They are attractive, permanent, and inexpensive. Paper towels can also be used. Thin cork sheets can be purchased from a place like Staple's Office Supply. They conduct heat well and are easy to clean.
If you use tile and the tile does not sit flush against the glass floor, that might cause "hot spots" and variable temp gun readings. Adding a 1/8 inch to 1/4 inch layer of washed DRY fine sand ONLY under the tiles should fix that.
Make sure tiles or slate are no more than ~3/8 inch thick. If they are too thick it will interfere with heat conduction from your UTH.
Some Lowe's Home Improvement stores will trim tiles free or for a small fee.
If you choose paper towels, the safest route is to contain all food for your leo in a feeding dish! Sometimes leopard geckos eat paper towels.
Reptile carpet harbors bacteria from feces and urine. Both young and mature leopard geckos tend to get their teeth and claws stuck in these carpets.
Avoid vinyl tiles with or without adhesive backing. Unhealthy volatile organic compounds (VOCs) can be created by off-gassing when vinyl tiles are heated.
Click: Hampshire 12 in. x 12 in. Gauged Slate Floor & Wall Tile-SHAM1212 at The Home Depot (http://www.homedepot.com/h_d1/N-5yc1v/R-202508363/h_d2/ProductDisplay?langId=-1&storeId=10051&catalogId=10053)

Slate tiles can be sealed with a food grade sealant so that they will NOT absorb gecko urine or feces. If you do not wish to seal the slate, then have several extra sections so that you can remove a few and sterilize them with a bleach solution. While the bleach is off-gassing, replace the missing sections with different pieces.

$30 Tile Cutter Link
Q.E.P. | 14 Inch Tile Cutter with 7/8 Inch Cutting Wheel | Home Depot Canada (http://www.homedepot.ca/product/14-inch-tile-cutter-with-7-8-inch-cutting-wheel/969115)

Potential Slate Tile Sealants
Make certain any product is reptile-safe! Both the following are carried at my Home Depot:
****Spray-N-Seal: (Stone Care International, Inc ~ Tile Cleaners | Grout Sealer | Granite Countertop Care | Stone Care 800-839-1654 (http://www.StoneCare.com))

Surface Guard Sealer: (TILELab ~ 800-272-8786, Building Materials for Contractors, Architects & Homeowners | Custom Building Products (http://www.CustomBuildingProducts.net))

Sand Impaction Links + Another Link
Geckos Unlimited has numerous reports of leopard geckos, young and older, dieing from sand impaction. NEVER use Vita Sand, Calci-sand, or any sand which contains calcium. You do not want your leo eating sand to get calcium!
RIP Leo "Peach":

Click: http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/leopard-geckos-other-eublepharis/67832-my-leo-peach-her-fight-sand-impaction.html
Click: http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/leopard-geckos-other-eublepharis/49884-my-dear-peach.html
Click: http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/leopard-geckos-other-eublepharis/49735-leo-has-sand-impaction.html

Another leo lost to sand impaction: Caution: graphic photos! [Contributed by Saskia......December 2014]
Click: https://www.facebook.com/media/set/?set=a.940775562617358.1073741912.207897745905147&type=1

Leo "Geoffrey":
Click: http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/leopard-geckos-other-eublepharis/67388-newbie-needs-help-leopard-gecko-possible-impaction-2.html

Maintain leopard geckos at humidity between 40-60%. The warm moist humid hide will have higher humidity. A warm moist humid hide helps geckos with hydration as well as with shedding. Locate the moist hide and one of the dry hides on the warm end. One (or two) large water bowls will help increase the humidity.

Misting is NOT recommended for a leo enclosure.

Click: Relative Humidity - CityRating.com (http://www.cityrating.com/relativehumidity.asp)

3 Hides per Leopard Gecko
Use at least 3 hides for a single leopard gecko: a warm MOIST hide, a warm DRY hide, and a cool DRY hide. Keep both a MOIST hide and a DRY hide on the warm end.

(1) Excellent Cool Dry and/or Warm DRY hide
Click: Amazon.com: Exo Terra Reptile Cave, Medium: Pet Supplies (http://www.amazon.com/Exo-Terra-Reptile-Cave-Medium/dp/B001F3YJ9O/ref=sr_1_1?s=pet-supplies&ie=UTF8&qid=1352584610&sr=1-1&keywords=exo+terra+reptile+hide)

(2) Homemade Humid Hide made by GU's wicked gecko (Russ)


"Here's a shot of my humid hide made from GladWare. I melted the entrance with a soldering iron, so it's really smooth. I then cut a single piece of aquarium airline tubing a little extra long and split it down the middle. It's on the warm side and filed with Eco Earth's coco fiber. I made the entrance higher up to contain the coco fiber if leo Hiccup decides to dig."

(3) Homemade Humid Hides made by GU's Conched (Matt)

31126 31127

Here's a hide that works great for the warm humid hide. Matt uses plastic 45 oz Country Crock containers; the 16 oz are too small. The lid has a 6 inch diameter. The 45 oz size allows a fully grown Leo to fit comfortably inside.

Use an opaque container. The above ground entrance keeps the substrate inside. Sand or melt the edges of the opening so they are not sharp. Fill it with paper towel strips, sphagnum moss, or Eco Earth's coco fiber -- all dampened.

(4) Awesome leo hides handmade with river rocks by GU's JessJohnson87 For details and photos scroll to post #114 right here. Or scroll to post #28 in this thread:

Click: http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/leopard-geckos-general-info-intros-and-pics/78431-post-found-reptile-3.html

(5) Zoo Med's 3-in-1 resin hide with a flat bottom is now manufactured in ceramic instead. This ceramic hide now has a concave bottom! It's a humid hide with a deep bowl for containing sphagnum moss or other hide substrate like Eco Earth's coco fiber packed down.

March 2015 update: Zoo Med now makes these 3-in-1 Reptile Caves in ceramic, not in resin like the one I have. The resin one has a flat floor; the ceramic one has a concave floor. That design change (leaving an air space on the bottom) lessens the temperature inside the ceramic 3-in-1!

23 March 2015: kholtme (Kyle) created a separate thread to share his experience with the ceramic model. Click: http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/herp-products/78186-3-1-hide-review.html#post442988

28 March 2015: Please contact Zoo Med customer service regarding the "heat encapsulation effect" regarding heat trapped underneath their New Model 3-in-1 hide. Zoo Med has specific recommendations about it's placement in your leo's cage.

GU's Muffins94 (Merissa Banta) recommends Zoo Med's Repti-Shelter 3 in 1 Cave medium: Amazon.com: Zoo Med Reptile Shelter 3 in 1 Cave, Medium: Pet Supplies (http://www.amazon.com/Zoo-Med-Reptile-Shelter-Medium/dp/B000BNZTAC/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&qid=1388913179&sr=8-1&keywords=zoo+med+repti-shelter+3+in+1+cave) Medium size fits up through normal adult sized leopard geckos (~9 total inches).

(6) Click new (2014) Exo Terra Reptile Caves: Exo Terra : New Reptile Cave / Natural Hiding Place (http://exo-terra.com/en/products/new_reptile_cave.php) The medium works well for normal size adult leopard geckos. [Thanks to GU's jinete & Zux]

Avoid vermiculite in the moist hide! Vermiculite in eye & cute picture of leo with eye patch:
Click: http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/leopard-geckos-other-eublepharis/64951-leopard-gecko-something-eye.html.

Cage furniture and silk plant foliage will add security to your leo's micro-environment. For additional privacy, cover the sides and back of the enclosure with construction paper.


Nutrient Requirements: Merck Veterinary Manual (2011) (http://www.merckvetmanual.com/mvm/index.jsp? cfile=htm/bc/171406.htm)
United States Department of Agriculture food analyses: Foods List (http://ndb.nal.usda.gov/ndb/search/list)

Calcium, Vitamin, & Mineral Supplements
Best not to keep any supplement in the enclosure including plain calcium carbonate!

(click to enlarge Douglas R. Mader, DVM's article)

Vitamin D3 is crucial to a gecko's diet. Vitamin D3 helps metabolize calcium. Some vitamin D3 is often found in the diet we feed the feeders. Usually additional powdered supplementation is necessary. If your leopard gecko has an enclosure at least 4 feet long, UVB lighting is preferred. Even then a backup dose of D3 calcium @ 1 feeding per month is recommended! Without a vitamin D3 source, any leo/gecko is at risk for metabolic bone disease. Too much vitamin D3 is harmful as well. If one uses UVB lighting for a leopard gecko, there should be many places for a leopard gecko to dodge the UVB rays.

Our goal is to provide our geckos with as close to a 1.5-2.0 calcium to a 1.0 phosphorus as is possible. Suggest feeding bugs and worms a healthy dry diet plus certain veggies as the primary source of nutrition. Then lightly dust the prey as the secondary source of vitamins and calcium.

In places like some South American and African countries where plain calcium carbonate powder is unavailable, cuttlebone (sepia bone -- also calcium carbonate) can be shaved off and "chopped".

Edit: 13 July 2012
Relatively recent research suggests that chameleons do not metabolize beta-carotene into vitamin A at all. Does the same apply to geckos?

Click: Vitamin A deficiency in Insectivorous Geckos | Gecko Time (http://www.geckotime.com/vitamin-a-deficiency-in-leopard-geckos/)

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Click important research: http://www.timberlinefisheries.com/v/vspfiles/assets/images/finke%20et%20al_2005_evaluation%20of%20four%20dry% 20commercial%20gut%20loading%20products%20for%20im proving%20the%20calcium%20content%20of%20crickets. pdf

If you are feeding a healthy adult leopard gecko 18+ months old, dust with this frequency:
Monday -- Lightly dust feeders with Zoo Med's Repti Calcium with D3
Thursday -- Lightly dust feeders with Zoo Med's plain (no D3) ReptiVite multivitamins

For additional details see posts 124, 125, and 126 immediately following these Leo Guidelines.

Use Zoo Med's ReptiVite multivitamins sparingly! A wee pinch no more than 1x per week is all you need!! The directions on both Zoo Med's ReptiVite multivitamins and Zoo Med's Repti Calcium with D3 containers suggest dusting according to your gecko's weight.

Finely grind the following dry diets for crickets (Acheta domestica), Blaptica dubia, and mealworms. Feed it to them 24/7. Off to the side add a dish of chopped collard, dandelion, mustard, and turnip greens for high calcium/low phosphorus and for moisture. Make certain your source is pesticide-free!

***Zoo Med's Natural Adult Bearded Dragon Food
Aliza (GU's acpart) uses this already ground dry diet from "Professional Reptiles" for her insect and worm food as well as for her mealworm/superworm bedding:

Click: 1 lb Pro Gutload - Professional Reptiles (http://www.professionalreptiles.com/supplies/food-and-water/insect-food/1-lb-pro-gutload.html)
Click: Food & Water :: Insect Food (http://www.professionalreptiles.com/supplies/insect-food/)
Albers' All Purpose Poultry Feed
Purina Layena Crumbles: https://www.purinamills.com/
***Cricket Crack dry diet from the Reptile Supply Company
***Alfalfa Meal - alternating with the starred foods above (from the Reptile Supply Company)

1. Lightly dust prey according to the above schedule. Lightly dust = like a "sprinkling of powdered sugar on a cake"

2. The term gutloading causes some confusion. Feed your feeders a nutritious regular diet all the time to build strong feeder bodies. Feeding your geckos insects and worms whose entire body is healthy (and not just their guts) is very important!

Be sure to check the calcium-to-phosphorus ratio of any food that you feed to the crickets or worms. Carrots, for instance, contain about a 1:2.3 ratio (???) of calcium to phosphorus depending upon the charts.

23181 + 23184, maybe 23185

For plain calcium carbonate, the NOW brand sold in health food stores is less expensive.

***Current directions (16 May 2013) on Zoo Med's Reptivite with/without D3/A acetate
"Directions for Insectivores: Place crickets in a tall plastic container with a wee pinch of Reptivite. Swirl to lightly dust crickets with the powder. Feed approximately 12 dusted crickets per week for every 2.5 ounces (71 grams) of body weight."

Zoo Med's ReptiVite contains vitamin A acetate (retinol) in contrast to the beta carotene provided in Rep Cal's Herptivite. There has been research with chameleons which suggests they do not utilize vitamin A in the form of beta carotene.


***In the United Kingdom, Nutrobal all-in-one multivitamin is available for lightly dusting your geckos' prey. It's excellent!

Click: Nutrobal for reptiles (http://www.vetark.co.uk/pages/Nutrobal-for-reptiles.aspx)

Pro-Rep Calcidust

"Premium Insect Enriching Formula".....by KOMODO (made in England)
Click: https://www.komodoproducts.com/

Preferred Insects & Worms for Leopard Geckos
Nutritional Values of Common Feeders

Click: Mark Finke, Ph.D.'s Nutritional Analyses of Feeders chart http://www.geckotime.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/04/table-large.png
Click: Nutritional Value of Commercially Raised Insects | Gecko Time (http://www.geckotime.com/nutritional-value-of-commercially-raised-insects/)

Associated Nutrition Link
Click: NDL/FNIC Food Composition Database Home Page (http://ndb.nal.usda.gov/)

Suggested Prey Items
When trying out any new feeder for your leos, order a trial cup.

Feed adult leos 3 times per week and young leos just about every day. Offer variety selected from the following: crickets, black soldier fly larvae (Phoenix/calci/reptiworms), roaches, silkworms, hornworms, blue bottle fly larvae, mealworm pupae, freshly molted mealworms, grasshoppers, and locusts (smallest locusts possible).

To keep crickets in a shallow feeding dish, cut off the back legs at the "knees". Young leos are often clumsy hunters. Slowing down the crickets by cutting off their back legs gives young leos more time to catch them. Loose prey in the tank will be a source of stress to your leo and can even nibble on your leo's toes when the leo is sleeping. It is fine to leave prey in a shallow feeding dish.

Pinky mice and waxworms are like ice cream for geckos. Recently I heard that waxworms contain vitamin C. Offer waxworms very infrequently (maybe several times per month). Waxworms might help a hatchling gecko who refuses to eat. Excessive fat in geckos' diets can lead to hepatic lipidosis (fatty liver disease) and gout.

Silkworms are a soft-bodied feeder high in vitamin A (retinol).
Click: Silkworm Guidelines I (http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/leopard-geckos-food-and-feeding-issues-/68584-silkworm-guidelines.html#post391395)

Hornworms -- Leopard geckos love them!
Click: Hornworm Care Guidelines (http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/leopard-geckos-food-and-feeding-issues-/68585-hornworm-guidelines.html#post391397)

Feeder Roaches
Click: Feeder Roaches: Care and Breeding......Ozymandias (http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/feeders-food-nutrition/53949-feeder-roaches-care-breeding.html)

Insect & Worm Resource
Click: Care & Breeding: crickets, Blaptica dubia, hornworms, silkworms, Phoenix worms, & others (http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/feeders-food-and-nutrition/73620-care-breeding-feeders-crickets-blaptica-dubia-hornworms-silkworms.html#post417745)

Mealworms Freshly molted mealworms or mealworm pupae are recommended for variety, NOT as a staple food.

Click: http://www.geckodan.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/04/Pros-and-Cons-of-Mealworms.pdf
Click: http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/leopard-geckos-other-eublepharis/41492-feeding-mealworms-leopard-geckos.html


Click: http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/feeders-food-nutrition/61249-superworm-feeding-caution-zophobas-morio-cricket4u.html
Click: Breeding Superworms: A guide to raising and breeding superworms (http://www.geckotime.com/how-to-breed-superworms)
Click: http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/feeders-food-nutrition/53035-truth-about-story-superworms-mealworms-can-eat-through-stomach-2.html

Black Soldier Fly Larvae: "Phoenix/calci/reptiworms" are different trademarked names.
BSFL are very healthy feeders. The largest BSFL worms are only 3/4 inch long, They are recommended for leos. They are often popular with young leos too. Rinse them off prior to feeding!

Once you receive the Phoenix worms, they should neither be dusted nor fed!!!

Click: The Phoenix Worm Store Home Page (http://www.phoenixworm.com/servlet/StoreFront)

Blue Bottle Fly Larvae

Do not attempt to feed an emaciated/dehydrated gecko till the gecko's hydration status has been assessed by a veterinarian. In order to prevent further damage to the kidneys or liver, let the vet rehydrate your gecko. Only then assist feed.

To get any gecko to open it's mouth brush your finger, a thin dowel, or a stainless steel gavage needle (with a rounded "ball" tip) horizontally past his lips. Stroke gecko's lips -- gecko opens mouth -- then insert water, food, or medicine. Be gentle and never force the mouth open.

Click: How to get a gecko to open it's mouth? (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9mIJmeebvss)

Before feeding a dehydrated gecko, make sure he/she is hydrated. Using clear Pedialyte might help.

Repashy's Grub Pie I'm not sure whether Grub Pie is good for ongoing feeding of ailing geckos who are off food. (75% insect meal) can be mixed into a paste by adding warm water. This has a much longer shelf life than Oxbow's Carnivore Care.
Guaranteed Analysis: Crude Protein min. 40%, Crude Fat min. 12%, Crude Fiber max. 15%, Moisture max. 10%, Ash max. 12%, Calcium min. 1.5%.
INGREDIENTS: Insect Meal, Dried Seaweed Meal, Coconut Meal, Ground Flaxseed, Stabilized Rice Bran, Dried Brewers Yeast, Lecithin, Dried Kelp, Locust Bean Gum, Calcium Carbonate, Potassium Citrate, Salt, Taurine, Watermelon, RoseHips, Hibiscus Flower, Calendula Flower, Marigold Flower, Paprika, Turmeric, Salt, Calcium Propionate and Potassium Sorbate (as preservatives), Magnesium Amino Acid Chelate, Zinc Methionine Hydroxy Analogue Chelate, Manganese Methionine Hydroxy Analogue Chelate, Copper Methionine Hydroxy Analogue Chelate, Selenium Yeast. Vitamins: (Vitamin A Supplement, Vitamin D3 Supplement, Choline Chloride, L-Ascorbyl-Polyphosphate, Vitamin E Supplement, Niacin, Beta Carotene, Pantothenic Acid, Riboflavin, Pyridoxine Hydrochloride, Thiamine Mononitrate, Folic Acid, Biotin, Vitamin B-12 Supplement, Menadione Sodium Bisulfite Complex).

Oxbow's Carnivore Care is best for leos off food. Available via Amazon in 70 gram and 340 gram sizes! Your vet may be able to order some.
Click: http://www.oxbowanimalhealth.com/our-products/professional-line/carnivore-care/
For (storage tips beyond 1 week) 34 click: Powdered Assist Foods: Oxbow’s Carnivore Care, Emeraid, & Repta+Boost (http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/gecko-care-sheets/55211-leopard-gecko-caresheet-eublepharis-macularius-demo-video-4-jan-2013-update-4.html#post377825)
Lafeber's Emeraid for Carnivors -- quite similar to Oxbow's Carnivore Care
Click: Emeraid® Carnivore | Lafeber's Emeraid (http://emeraid.com/emeraid-carnivore/)
In a pinch, use Mazuri's
Click: Mazuri Shopping Cart - Insectivorous Lizards (http://www.mazuri.com/insectivorouslizards.aspx)
Fluker's Repta+Boost -- better to buy Oxbow's Carnivore Care or Lafeber's Emeraid for Carnivors instead


Turkey baby food is better than chicken baby food. Place the baby food directly on the gecko's lips/snout. For an electrolyte boost especially with dehydrated geckos, turkey (or chicken) baby food can be mixed 1:1 with unflavored Pedialyte. Sprinkle a little calcium with D3 into the chicken baby food 2x per week. If additional calcium is necessary, use a liquid supplement called Calcium Glubionate.

To discover the benefits of turkey baby food scroll to Assist Feeding post 8 by Maurice Pudlo. That post follows the Leopard Gecko Guidelines on this care sheet.

Feed insects and worms a balanced dry diet that provides no more than 20% protein and no more than 5% crude fat.

Albers All Purpose Poultry Feed (from feed store): The label reads 16% minimum protein, 3% minimum fat, and vitamin A acetate among many other nutrients!
+ Collard greens -- especially recommended for high calcium-to-low phosphorus ratio & high lutein
+ Dandelion greens & flowers
+ Prickly pear cactus
+ Watercress
Whole Grain TOTAL -- General Mills dry cereal (in a pinch)

The Reptile Supply Company, Inc. based in Sacramento, California (info@ReptileSupplyCo.com) sells alfalfa meal, bee pollen, chlorella powder, spirulina powder, and strawberry powder (coarse).
Click: http://www.reptilesupplyco.com/

Avoid feeding dog food, cat food, OR tropical fish flakes to insects or worms. Those are way too high in protein and fat. They could potentially cause hepatic lipidosis or gout.

Avoid feeding freeze-dried/canned crickets to geckos. Geckos get moisture from well-hydrated prey as well as the nutrients such prey provides.

Click here to check out almost any food:
Foods List (http://ndb.nal.usda.gov/ndb/search/list)

NDL/FNIC Food Composition Database Home Page (http://www.nal.usda.gov/fnic/foodcomp/search/)

Feeding Dishes
Join the FaceBook group Gecko food! Feeder insects group and the following link will work.

Click: https://www.facebook.com/video/video.php?v=420810677967088&oid=359607730781688

8 ounce clear glass round dishes with totally vertical sides: 1" & 5/8" deep x 3" & 3/4" diameter. Source: Anchor Hocking, 800-562-7511, ext 2478. Use a sloped stepping stone/ramp for easy access to the feeding dish and to stabilize the dish.
Click: https://www.oneida.com/storage-organization/food-storage/classic-glass-storage/anchor-hocking-8pc-kitchen-storage-w-red-lids.html
Ceramic tea cups used by Asian restaurants are nice and deep. They have no handles!
Jumbo tealight holders: Mainstays Jumbo Tealight Holder: Decor : Walmart.com (http://www.walmart.com/ip/Mainstays-Jumbo-Tealight-Holder/16777024)
Small ceramic ramekins from a kitchen store make nice feeding and water dishes. They have deeper vertical slippery sides---ideal for containing some feeders!

Click: Cricket Care Guidelines II -- January 2018 update (http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/gecko-care-sheets/55211-leopard-gecko-caresheet-eublepharis-macularius-demo-video-4-jan-2013-update-12.html#post448826)

Finely grind the following dry diets for crickets (Acheta domestica), Blaptica dubia, and mealworms. Feed it to them 24/7. Off to the side add a dish of chopped collard, dandelion (flowers & greens), mustard, and turnip greens for high calcium/low phosphorus and for moisture. Make certain your source is pesticide-free!

***Zoo Med's Natural Adult Bearded Dragon Food
Aliza (GU's acpart) uses this already ground dry diet from "Professional Reptiles" for her insect and worm food as well as for her mealworm/superworm bedding:

Click: 1 lb Pro Gutload - Professional Reptiles (http://www.professionalreptiles.com/supplies/food-and-water/insect-food/1-lb-pro-gutload.html)
Click: Food & Water :: Insect Food (http://www.professionalreptiles.com/supplies/insect-food/)
Albers' All Purpose Poultry Feed
Purina Layena Crumbles: https://www.purinamills.com/
***Cricket Crack dry diet from the Reptile Supply Company
***Alfalfa Meal - alternating with the starred foods above (from the Reptile Supply Company)

Click: http://www.ghann.com/Cricket-Species-Info.aspx

Acheta domestica, the softer brown cricket, is ideal. They are sold in the USA by Armstrong's Crickets among other companies. Acheta domestica really ARE significantly quieter than banded cricket (Gryllodes sigillatus) males!

Since November 2012 Gryllodes sigillatus, the banded cricket, has been sold in the USA by Ghann's. In May 2013 a herp keeper reported that Gryllodes sigillatus are more jumpy than Acheta domestica. In July 2018 a gecko keeper told me that her banded cricket males are super loud!

Gryllus assimilis Click: Attack of the Feeder Crickets | Gecko Time (http://www.geckotime.com/jamaican-field-cricket-gryllus-assimili/)

Gryllus locorojo, "crazy reds", are super aggressive and mean.

I breed Blaptica dubia in a 10 gallon tank with 5 vertically positioned egg flats trimmed just a bit shorter than the height of the tank. Alternating the egg flats back-to-back, then front-to-front, allows better hiding opportunities for your Blaptica dubia. Keep finely ground (Albers) All Purpose Poultry Feed or Zoo Med's Natural Bearded Dragon Food Adult Formula in shallow lids to one side of the egg flats. Vitamin A acetate (retinol) is one important ingredient in the dry diet. Collard greens can be added occasionally. Dandelion flowers and greens are also great sources of calcium.

Once a day I thoroughly moisten 2 layers of paper towels and then squeeze out excess water. Lay those on top of the egg flats. In a room which ranges from 67 F/19.4 C upwards, I keep a 15 watt incandescent bulb in an 8.5 inch diameter reflector dome directly over the screened tank and on 24/7. This setup produces all sizes of dubia. :)

Dubia give birth to live nymphs when the temperatures are sufficiently warm. Females have this pointy body part called an ootheca. The babies emerge from the female's ootheca. The males "sprout" wings when they are mature. Mature dubia are way too big for most leopard geckos to eat.

Avoid cross contamination by not returning Blaptica dubia to the dubia tank if they are not eaten. They'll do fine in the leopard geckos' cages for a few days as long as they are contained within a feeding bowl. Place a little cricket food in their bowl.

Do NOT feed Blaptica dubia any type of dog, cat, puppy, or kitten food, or fish flakes no matter how organic!

Keep the dry diet DRY! Shield or remove the dry food when you spray the egg flats. :-)

(1) "If you do not want to breed the roaches, keep them around 70 degrees F (21 C) to slow their growth. Eventually, if not fed off, they will grow larger than is safe for a gecko to eat. When you are ready to gut load them, heat them up between 80 and 95 F and they will eat like crazy!

That's what I do with my feeders and it works well. My breeders are kept at about 90-95 F and they seem to grow 2-3 times as fast as the ones I have set aside for feeders." [Tip is thanks to Geckologist.tj in October 2013]

(2) You can tell when Blaptica dubia are sexually mature simply by looking at them. When they molt past their final instar, they are sexually dimorphic- that is, the males and females have different physical characteristics. The females will develop a more noticeable orange color to their patterns, more obvious than with the nymphs, and will have tiny wing nubs. The males when mature will have full wings upon the final molt.

The males develop their wings immediately during the final molt. Wing size, along with general body size, can sometimes vary, so when you say the males don't seem to have the wings like males should have, they may just be smaller wings than usual. If the wings are covering the length of their backs, then they're adult males.

I read that dubia aren't cannibalistic although it 's difficult to say for sure unless someone were to test this. I know orange head roaches are cannibalistic and even readily eat live insects." [Thanks to GU's Mogey in May 2014]

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All female geckos can develop infertile eggs without mating.

If you see eggs, add a nest box filled with damp Eco Earth's coco fiber to the warm end of the enclosure to prompt her to lay those eggs.
A 1x daily warm 86*F (30*C) soak for about 15 minutes may help. Gently massage her belly towards the vent during that soak.
An oxytoxin injection may help too. If she is unable to lay her eggs, surgery is required.
If a female gecko becomes egg-bound, eventually the eggs begin to rot inside. This infection leads to septicemia (blood poisoning), then death.

Click: Egg Binding (Dystocia) in Reptiles: Causes, Signs, Diagnosis, Treatment, and Prevention (http://www.peteducation.com/article.cfm?c=17+1796&aid=3010)

From mating to egg-laying takes anywhere from 2-4 weeks depending upon temperature. Prepare a nest box and set up your incubator! :-)

Click: Albey's How To Incubate Leopard Gecko Eggs (http://www.albeysreptiles.com/incubate-eggs.htm)

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Scroll down this thread for additional informative posts!

Elizabeth Freer
04-11-2011, 03:36 PM
Female leopard geckos lay their eggs 2-4 weeks after mating. Usually the warmer the environment they are in the faster they lay! I live in tropical Venezuela and they lay as soon as 12 days after copulating. The ideal would be to put a lay box in the hot spot of the female’s tank. If you give the female a moist, warm spot, she'll probably lay faster. After copulating keep her separated from the male. Separation reduces stress and increases the possibilities of fertile eggs! I would advise feeding her as much as you can, while she is still eating (probably she won’t eat at all a few days before laying), with enough calcium, vitamins and D3, in order for her to be in her best condition to produce ova.

I definitely advise turning on your incubator immediately after copulating. Sometimes it takes days to get the temperatures stable. Set up a thermometer, and (as a personal opinion) put that thermometer inside the incubating box where the eggs will be kept. Make certain that the substrate reaches the proper temperature and humidity before the eggs are placed in it. It is always best to have everything set ahead of time!! That way your eggs won't have to suffer from a sudden change in temperature! Remember to get the temperature stable according to the sex you'll want for your newborns before placing the eggs into the incubator. The sooner you get prepared the better! Good luck!

With thanks to GU member Saskia for sharing these tips.

Incubating Leo Eggs
Click: Albey's How To Incubate Leopard Gecko Eggs (http://www.albeysreptiles.com/incubate-eggs.htm)

Elizabeth Freer
05-23-2011, 09:05 PM
Bring a fresh fecal sample to the vet's right away. A vet will let you know if what you see is an issue. In my experience, the gecko (patient) needs to be seen before a fecal will be performed.

Sometimes if you massage a gecko's belly while he's on some piece of plastic, the gecko WILL poop right away!

These days vets can test for Cryptosporidiosis by swabbing the gecko's vent.

Here's how my exotics vet recommends collecting a stool sample:

Place a piece of clean plastic where your gecko usually poops. If your gecko poops somewhere else, take the poop to the vet anyway. Some poop is better than no poop!
As soon as your gecko has passed some poop and urates, but without physically touching the sample, place the feces and urates directly onto a clean plastic bottle cap. (Vet has fecal sample containers if you can stop by first.)
Then place the bottle cap with fecal sample directly into a plastic ziploc bag. (Do NOT use paper towels or newspaper because those will absorb some of the feces necessary for a proper culture.)
Refrigerate this sample...unless you are taking the sample to your vet immediately. Do NOT freeze it.
Keep the sample cool enroute to the vet.
Take this fecal sample to your vet within 24 hours of collecting...the sooner the better!

[There are two types of fecals: fecal float and direct smear tests. For geckos, ask the vet whether both tests should be run.]



Additional info:


Elizabeth Freer
07-26-2011, 03:38 AM
Click: Leopard Gecko Genetics - A Discussion of Particular Leopard Gecko Morphs (http://www.geckosetc.com/htm/genetics.htm)

From acpart (Aliza):
Click: Fun with Hets: Leopard Geckos Teach Genetics 101 - Gecko Time - Gecko Time (http://www.geckotime.com/leopard-gecko-genetics-and-hets/)

Elizabeth Freer
08-21-2011, 04:45 AM
Be sure to monitor your gecko at all times during these procedures.

Place your gecko in a Humidity Box for several hours to loosen stuck shed on eyes, toes, head, and/or body (including the tail tip).

If the eyes have retained shed, gently flush them with a normal saline solution. Fill a small squeeze bottle with a contact lens wetting solution such as Blink for Contacts NOT a contact lens CLEANER. Aim the flow towards the eyes. Alternatively, saturate a small sterile gauze pad with normal saline. Gently hold this against the eyes for several minutes.

IF these methods are ineffective or if there are any signs of infection, seek vet attention immediately!

Method #1

Use warm water. The water temperature should be no greater than 86*F/30*C, a leopard gecko's preferred body temperature.
Use a plastic container a little bigger than your gecko
Poke or solder holes in the lid or the container so your gecko can breathe
Add some paper towels
Add a little water up to the belly of your leopard gecko. If your gecko is smaller, use scrunched up paper towels that have been dampened or sprayed to maintain the necessary humidity. Include a small piece of cork bark with the damp paper towels.
Spray walls and lid of container
Add gecko
Snap on lid
Place this container on top of the heat mat OR place this container near a lamp containing a low wattage bulb (15 watt or 25 watt incandescent bulb or similar wattage compact fluorescent). Water droplets should form on the insides of your plastic container!
Monitor the temperature frequently
Monitor your gecko at all times
Repeat this procedure, if necessary.
After 30 minutes, perhaps longer, remove the gecko and gently attempt to remove the stuck shed using a gentle rolling motion with a dry q-tip on the affected area.

Method #2
Use warm water. The water temperature should be no greater than 86*F/30*C, a leopard gecko's preferred body temperature.
Fill a shallow basin or the bathroom sink with lukewarm water to your gecko's belly depth.
Let your gecko soak for 10-20 minutes.
Then take a dry q-tip, and with a gentle rolling motion, work on the toes or tail tip. Use tweezers gently, if necessary.
Monitor your gecko at all times!
This should definitely loosen any shed remaining on the critter's toes.

Method #3 -- Especially for stuck shed on head & nose
Wrap the gecko in a warm wet washcloth with just the snout and eyes visible.
Firmly hold gecko in place for 30 minutes.
Remove washcloth.
Test the skin gently to see whether it has loosened up enough for removal.
IF skin is not loose enough, try wrapping your gecko again for another 15 minutes.
Try holding wet sterile gauze or a wet cotton ball on your gecko's head or near his nose.

Method #4 -- especially for crested geckos
Click: Crested Gecko "Bath" - YouTube (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mSuirE906p0)

Method #5 -- Soft Bristled Toothbrush Assist -- This even works on geckos with much smaller toes than leos.
Always give your gecko a head start with a humidity box/sauna. First place your gecko in a humidity box for an hour or so. Then place that gecko on a firm surface like a counter top. Apply gentle pressure on the gecko's toes with a soft bristled toothbrush and dry & wet q-tips. Gently sweep the toothbrush and the q-tips away from the toes.

Hold smaller geckos between your thumb and fingers in a gently closed fist with either their head or their tail sticking out. Gently work against your thumb. Follow the suggestions above.

For link 4 click: Humidity Box Assists for Stuck Shed (http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/gecko-care-sheets/55211-leopard-gecko-caresheet-eublepharis-macularius-demo-video-4-jan-2013-update-post325836.html#post325836)

Method #6 -- Proactive Method
Here's a proactive approach that looks quite promising. This cave will keep humidity higher 24/7. Since the humidification cave is made from clay, colors vary some. I would use this cave + an 8 ounce water dish for a leo.

Click: https://www.amazon.com/OMEM-Reptiles-Hideout-Humidification-Lizard/dp/B01M1NTI44


Small: 3.54'' x 2.76'' x 2.36''
Medium: 4.72'' x 3.35'' x 2.95''
Large: 5.9'' x 4.72'' x 3.74''

Method #7 -- Ongoing Multivitamin Method
Troubleshoot both your leo's multivitamins and your insect/worm dry diets for vitamin A acetate (retinol). IF especially your gecko's multivitamn does NOT contain vitamin A acetate (retinol), experiment with a multivitamin that does. Both Repashy's Calcium Plus multivitamins and Zoo Med's Reptivite multivitamins with and withOUT D3 contain vitamin A acetate. A diet lacking vitamin A acetate is believed to be responsible for shedding difficulties and skin issues. Consistent ambient humidity ranging from 40-60% counts buckets too.

Elizabeth Freer
09-15-2011, 10:02 PM
Click: http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/feeders-food-and-nutrition/73620-care-breeding-feeders-crickets-blaptica-dubia-hornworms-silkworms.html

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(click to enlarge)

Black soldier fly larvae (BSFL -- Hermetia illucens) are also known as Phoenix worms, reptiworms, calciworms, and NutriGrubs.

Phoenix/calci/repti worms and NutriGrubs have been fed differently.

For many geckos order the largest size: 3/4 inch.

Genuine Phoenix worms retain all their nutritional values and must NOT be fed. Feeding PWs would restart their digestive system; they would defecate in the cup; and soon you would have bacteria growing and dead stinky worms. Simply keep the worms in the closed cup, store in a cool location (~55*F), and feed off as needed. Keep them in a picnic cooler with an ice pack changed out every 12 hours.

Keep Black Soldier Fly Larvae like this:
(click to enlarge)

Here's how to make Phoenix worms (BSFL) more palatable:
Rinse off the packing medium. A fine mesh sieve works great.
Let them crawl around on a paper towel to dry. Then feed them to geckos. When BSFL are dry, they will not climb.
Even some of the black ones "rejuvenate" when rinsed if they are not too far gone.
The darker ones are higher in calcium.
Save the dead ones. They may morph into flies, which your gecko may eat.
> > > Right before feeding BSFL to geckos poke 1-2 holes in each BSFL with a pin. Their skins are tough. That should help the gecko digest them.

Click: The Phoenix Worm Store Home Page (http://www.phoenixworm.com/servlet/StoreFront)

Click: Frequently Asked Questions – Phoenix Worm Store (http://www.phoenixworm.com/pages/faq)

Phoenix worm feedback:
The Phoenix worms I received 4 Nov 2015 from the online Phoenix Worm store seem to last forever! I ordered 100 Ls and 150 XSs. I fed off the Ls quite soon to several geckos, but the XS were much too small for the geckos who approved. I still have a handful of the XSs 3.5 months later! All I've done is keep them in a cool room (62-67*F) and add a little water occasionally.

HOWEVER: The Phoenix Worm company suggests only ordering a 3 week supply.
Q: Should I refrigerate Phoenix Worms?
A: NO. Phoenix Worms can tolerate high temperatures and will survive short exposure to freezing temperatures, but will have the best shelf life when stored at 50 to 60 degrees F. A wine cooler or basement are great storage places, but setting the cups near an A/C vent will work just fine in the summer. Although it's possible to "hold" worms for months when stored at 50 degrees, you should only order the number of worms that will be fed off within 3 weeks so your animal will have fresh food.

----------> 23 April 2018......Addendum by Zux:
"Be careful with feeding large numbers of BSFL in one sitting, particularly if the Gecko is very enthusiastic about its newfound prey.

"The outer skin on these worms can be quite tough and if consumed too quickly by an eager Gecko, and not sufficiently pierced, will not be digested effectively and either passed whole or regurgitated, neither of which you want.

"In my case, for Geckos who get too excited and wolf them down, I pierce each worm with a pin once right before feeding them off, this solves the issue.

"Good Luck !"

Elizabeth Freer
10-21-2011, 04:18 AM
Tips for Impaction
PoppyDear -- July 2017

Take a tupperware container or a sink and fill with lukewarm water @ ~86*F/30*C (a leo's preferred body temperature) a little over the belly of the gecko.
Gently massage down the length of your gecko from throat to vent in order to help get things moving.
Allow a soak and massage session to last around 30 minutes before returning the gecko to the tank.
Do NOT feed your gecko any more until they begin to pass the impacted substance. You don't want them anymore backed up than they already are.
Drop a few drops of olive oil on their lips/snout every other day to act as a laxative.
Monitor the poops closely for coco fiber, sand, or other foreign substances.
Click & scroll to post 4: http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/leopard-geckos-health-and-diseases-/83271-urgent-leo-impacted-eco-earth.html

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Add EF's exp with Oc prolapse

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During the warm water soak try massaging his belly from throat to vent (longitudinally).

"Apart from the bath you could also try a drop of mineral oil on your gecko's nose or if you can't get that 2 drops of olive oil. I used a combination of bathing (warm water not too hot) and mineral oil and gently rubbing my lizard's belly from front to back in the water. In addition check that your temps are warm enough, that your gecko has enough water and calcium, and that your gecko isn't eating food that's too big as these can cause constipation. If you're keeping it on sand or any other substrate that they can eat - change it as ingestion could be causing your gecko to be impacted too. If there's still no poop you'll have to take your gecko to the vet. 20 days with no poop is way too long! Can you see a big black mass of poop in your gecko's body - their skin's pretty transparent on their underside? Good luck with your poor little gecko! I really hope it's better soon." Thanks, Debbie7054 -- 10/14/2011

"When I thought my gecko was constipated the vet told me to give her her liquid paraffin (medicinal), 2 times a day for 2 days. It worked.

Dosage for a 40 gram leo: 0.2 ml 2 times a day, for 2 days." Thanks, zelda -- 10/14/2011)

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Elizabeth Freer
12-19-2011, 01:13 PM

Do not attempt to feed an emaciated/dehydrated gecko until the gecko's hydration status has been assessed by a veterinarian. In order to prevent further damage to the kidneys or liver, let the vet rehydrate your gecko. Only then assist feed.
To entice any gecko to open his mouth brush a thin dowel, a stainless steel gavage needle (with a rounded tip), or your finger horizontally past his lips. Stroke gecko's lips, gecko opens mouth, then insert water, food, or medicine. Be gentle. Never force the mouth open!

Click: How to Assist Feed a Leopard Gecko? - YouTube (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9mIJmeebvss&feature=player_embedded)

Syringe feed assist diet like this:


ONLY for short-term assist feeding:
Gerber's Turkey Baby Food -- Mix some Gerber's turkey baby food with clear Pedialyte 1:1. Place that on your leo's nose or let the gecko lick assist diet from the syringe's tip.

Hemisphaeriodon gerrardii
Pink-tongued skink
/\ photo thanks to Michael Nesbit (May 2015)

/\ photo thanks to Blinky's mom (February 2019)

Turkey Baby Food versus Chicken Baby Food
In December 2011 GU member Maurice Pudlo shared this. He's quite knowledgeable about nutrition.

"Turkey baby food is a milder food than chicken and thus provides less of a shock to the digestive system. The goal of assist feeding is not to overwhelm the gecko with nutrients.
"The recommended 1:1 ratio of turkey baby food (which is has a slightly higher water content than chicken baby food) to pediatric fluids (Pedialyte) helps quickly replace fluids and provides a mild dosage of nutrients that are more easily digestable than the more nutrient-dense chicken baby foods. [Fluid replacement at a veterinary clinic is often highly invasive procedure and should be avoided if at all possible. ???]
"Turkey is also lower in saturated fats as well as total fats. Fats are in both but the turkey diet after mixing contains just 3.1% where the chicken diet would have 3.95% (close to one percent higher in total fat content, of which a higher percentage is saturated fat).
"Turkey is slightly more mineral-rich than chicken (based on total ash content) and this may help with replacement of any lost due to a previously substandard diet.
"Turkey baby food contains 3 times as much total vitamin D (D2 + D3). This offsets its lower calcium levels. My opinion is that the calcium in turkey is more available than the calcium in chicken baby foods due to the higher level of vitamin D."

For long-term assist feeding:
(1) Oxbow's Carnivore Care premium recovery food is a powdered all-in-one food you mix with water. Available via a veterinarian & online via Amazon.com. Mix to a good consistency able to be drawn up into a fat syringe.

Click: Oxbow Animal Health | Carnivore Care (http://www.oxbowanimalhealth.com/products/type/detail?object=1609)
Click: Oxbow Animal Health | Vet Connect | (http://www.oxbowanimalhealth.com/resources/dyn/files/133799z89bdae07/_fn/2008+Postcard+Dosage+Chart-+Carnivore+Care+Cat-Avian-Reptile-Ferret.pdf)
(2) Lafeber's EmerAid for Carnivors -- very similar to Oxbow's Carnivore Care

Click: Emeraid products | LafeberVet (http://lafeber.com/vet/product-category/emeraid/)
(3) Also check out 3 separate Mazuri's Insectivore Diets

Click: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=K6a3W1ltuK0
(4) Fluker's Repta+Boost is an all-in-one powdered food meant to be mixed with water. It is available at Petco.
Guaranteed Analysis:
Protein (min) 25%, Fat (min) 17%, Fiber (max) 2.5%, Moisture (max) 13%, Calcium (min) 0.60%, Phosphorus (min) 0.50%.

Egg product, wheat flour, starch, isolated soy flour, corn oil, dried brewers yeast, dried kelp, calcium carbonate, dicalcium phosphate, pollen, dextrose, sodium chloride, potassium sorbate (preservative), dl-methionine, lecithin, choline chloride supplement, potassium chloride, spirulina, manganese sulfate, mixed natural tocopherols (antioxidant), zinc sulfate, magnesium oxide, ascorbic acid, beta carotene supplement, niacin, vitamin E supplement, copper sulfate, vitamin B12 supplement, vitamin A acetate, calcium pantothenate, vitamin D3 supplement, pyridoxine hydrochloride, menadione sodium bisulfite complex, riboflavin, thiamine mononitrate, ethylene diamine dihydriodide, biotin supplement, folic acid, sodium selenite.

Storing homemade diets:

If you make a homemade food for bugs and worms, freeze portions in an ice cube tray. Store frozen cubes in the freezer in a plastic GladWare container. Thaw as needed.

Elizabeth Freer
01-02-2012, 01:06 AM
Click: http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/leopard-geckos-general-info-intros-and-pics/64951-leopard-gecko-echo-vermiculite-eye-pirate-echo-wearing-eye-patch.html


Elizabeth Freer
01-02-2012, 06:58 PM
Click: http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/leopard-geckos-health-and-diseases-/78547-pet-store-please-help.html

With much appreciation to Ruzei

Elizabeth Freer
01-10-2012, 06:52 AM
Prior to beginning nutrition with ANY food source for a dehydrated gecko, start with unflavored Pedialyte for a couple days. Only afterwards begin offering food.

"One of the biggest problems in reptiles is dehydration which is a huge contributing factor to gout. One way to help with dehydration is to feed geckos insects with high moisture content like silkworms and hornworms. Silkworms are a high source of calcium, protein, iron, magnesium, sodium, and vitamins B1, B2, and B3."

Welcome to Great Lakes Hornworm (http://www.greatlakeshornworm.com/)

Hornworms (Goliaths) (http://www.mulberryfarms.com/Hornworms-Goliaths-c11/)

Exotic Insect Feeders for your Herps (http://www.reptilechannel.com/lizards/lizard-care/exotic-feeders-for-your-herps.aspx)

(Thanks to cricket4u -- January 2012)

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Insect Hydration -- Maurice Pudlo
Click: http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/feeders-food-and-nutrition/66772-insect-hydration.html

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Grubco states these nutritional values have been obtained by an independent lab:
Grubco :: Nutritional Information (http://www.grubco.com/nutritional_information.cfm)

YOUR BUGGIE HEADQUARTERS (http://www.lindasgonebuggie.com/)

Elizabeth Freer
01-10-2012, 08:15 AM
Yes, it has been said that superworms biting geckos is one of those urban legends, but it appears to really happen:

"In writing things may sound dramatic, and some people can be skeptical until it happens to them. A friend of mine was feeding his gecko a superworm. She saw his gecko bite once and suddenly the worm dropped out of her mouth. After that the gecko started refusing to eat completely. Concerned he took her to the vet and a bite mark was seen in the inside of the mouth which had began to show signs of infection.

Please smash the superworm's head prior to feeding."

With thanks to cricket4u

Click: http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/feeders-food-nutrition/61249-superworm-feeding-caution-zophobas-morio-cricket4u.html

Elizabeth Freer
02-22-2012, 07:10 AM
Caution: In some cases leopard geckos are much better at climbing up (and then fall down). Make sure the habitat you create is safe.

Click: http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/do-yourself-diy/56312-new-leopard-gecko-terrarium.html
Special thanks to Yoshi'smom (Kelly)

Click: Naturalistic habitat creations | planethx (http://planethx.com/naturalistic-habitat-creations/)
Special thanks to Maurice Pudlo -- Dec 2012

Click: http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/naturalistic-vivarium/58589-leopard-geckos-ultimate-naturalistic-vivarium-complete-leos.html
Special thanks to zelda -- 22 February 2012

Click: http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/leopard-geckos-other-eublepharis/64728-rango-home-remodel.html
Special thanks to ceduke

Click: http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/do-yourself-diy/63880-my-new-gecko-home.html#post366226
Special thanks to multinut
The attached thumbnails below show the Ultimate Rock Climbable Reptile Background available from BigAppleHerps.com. The 20 gallon LONG size costs $47 USD. "This background is made from some type of flexible material, could be silicone or rubber, and has been faced with gritty sand and painted. It feels like real rock, and provides the gecko with a very realistic climbing surface. I secured it to the back of the tank with industrial velcro. It is super easy to remove for cleaning, and can simply be rinsed off in the sink. It also allows for wires to be run behind it for probes and such, keeping those out of the way."

\/ \/ Special thanks to TonyPerkins203 for ALL his shares about 4th grade class leo Cleo \/ \/

Elizabeth Freer
02-22-2012, 07:21 AM
Hi All ~

This information was e-mailed to me by Jenn, Pacific Northwest Herpetological Society:

Phosphorus is necessary to herps as a component of bones, but too much phosphorus impairs calcium absorption. Here is a paragraph from Melissa Kaplan's page on Melissa Kaplan's Herp and Green Iguana Information Collection about calcium and MBD:

"Generally, equal amounts of soluble calcium and phosphorus ions are required for balance; ideally, the ratio of calcium to phosphorus should be 2:1. Too much calcium results in a phosphorus deficiency and impaired metabolic function. Too much phosphorus in the diet forms insoluble calcium phosphate which renders the calcium unusable; as the body continues to absorb the phosphorus, hypocalcemia—metabolic bone disease—results."

A lot of veggies contain phosphorus so you have to feed a carefully balanced diet to iguanas and other herbivores. Additionally, most feeder insects have a poor Ca:Ph ratio, so you dust with Ca only to increase that side of the ratio.

Hope this helps!


Thanks, Jenn!

Elizabeth Freer
02-25-2012, 09:07 PM
"Nutrobal" ***Highly RECOMMENDED***

"Nutrobal (all-in-one multivitamins) has been the top selling calcium balancer supplement in Europe for years. Peter formulated it 25 years ago (1992)."

Click: Nutrobal for reptiles (http://www.vetark.co.uk/pages/Nutrobal-for-reptiles.aspx)

Contents per gram:

Calcium 200 mg & Vitamin D3 150 IU [That's 150,000 IU/kg of vitamin D3.]
Vitamins A, C, E, K, B1, B2, B6, B12 folic, nicotinic and pantothenic acids, biotin choline niacin and minerals P, Na, Fe, Co, I, Mn, Zn, Se, Cu." (cricket4u -- 27 Feb 2012)

Calcium:Phosphorus ratio of 46:1

Click: Common question about Nutrobal (http://www.vetark.co.uk/pages/Common-question-about-Nutrobal.aspx?pageid=459) (Thanks to Pierre99)

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"ProRep Calci Dust"
Click: ProRep: Calci Dust (http://www.pro-rep.co.uk/food-supplements/calci-dust)

pure calcium carbonate
"ProRep Calci Dust is a supplement for reptiles and amphibians. It is made from 100% natural calcium carbonate with no additives and is an excellent way to provide essential calcium and avoid deficiency diseases. It's micro-fine particle size ensures excellent adhesion to both live insects and plant material.

Directions: Calcium forms an essential part of the diet of all reptiles and amphibians. Many foods that are used to feed them in captivity are low in this essential mineral or may have high levels of Phosphorus, which can inhibit the uptake of calcium.

To supplement vegetable matter for tortoises and other herbivorous reptiles simply sprinkle over food immediately before feeding. To supplement insects then place a small amount in a plastic bag with the insects and shake gently. They should then be fed immediately while the Calci Dust is still stuck to the insects.

To aid feeding the insects can be cooled before applying the Calci Dust. This will make them slower and ensure that they are quickly eaten.

It is not possible to overdose using Calci Dust and it can be used to supplement at every feed. However, as some animals find large quantities of it unpalatable avoid smothering the food. Because this product is 100% calcium carbonate, large quantities are not required to provide adequate calcium levels.

If acceptance is a problem then start with very low levels of supplementation and gradually increase it until your animals are used to the taste.

Most reptiles and amphibians can only absorb calcium from their food in the presence of vitamin D3. It is essential that adequate UVB light of the correct wavelength and intensity is provided to enable D3 synthesis by the animal or that oral D3 is supplied. It is recommended that a vitamin/mineral supplement is also used in conjunction with Calci Dust. Contents: Calcium carbonate."

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"ProRep Big Grub"
Click: ProRep :: Bug Grub (http://www.pro-rep.co.uk/food-supplements/bug-grub)

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Komodo Premium Leopard Gecko DIP (Insect Dusting Powder)
Click: Komodo Premium Leopard Gecko Dip (Insect Dusting Powder) 75 g (Pack of 2): Amazon.co.uk: Pet Supplies (http://www.amazon.co.uk/Komodo-Premium-Leopard-Insect-Dusting/dp/B00631447A)

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Here's how Nutrobal compares with Zoo Med's Repti Calcium with D3 (as far as the D3 goes):

Nutrobal contains vitamin D3 at 150,000 IU/kg.

Vitamins A, D, E, & K are fat soluble. That means they stick around in a gecko's (our) systems and are not flushed out when the gecko pees like water soluble vitamins (vitamin C and the B vitamins) are.

Zoo Med Repti Calcium with vitamin D3---phosphorus-free ***Highly RECOMMENDED***

38%-43% precipitated calcium carbonate
Vitamin D3: 10,390 IU/kg (that's 22,907 IU/pound)

Elizabeth Freer
08-12-2012, 07:43 PM
Click: Nekton-Rep Vitamin Mineral Supplement for Reptiles 35g - Reptile Medications and Supplements (http://www.arcatapet.com/item.cfm?cat=13324)

Elizabeth Freer
09-26-2012, 03:13 AM
Take a 2.5 gallon glass tank with screen cover
Add a piece of glass to cover 1/3 of the top
Clip on a 5.5 inch diameter Fluker's clamp lamp with dimmer capabilities
Insert a 25 watt bulb
Perforate the lid of a 24 ounce rectangular Rubbermaid container
Fill container 2/3rds full with freshly boiled incubation medium like Hatch-Rite, seramis.....
Dampen medium
Place each egg into a little pocket/indentation touching the seramis......half buried, top half exposed
Place probe of minimum/maximum digital thermometer inside with probe near the eggs
Close container
Place digital thermometer outside of RM container, but within the tank
Cover tank and adjust heat output of light bulb

Moisture droplets on the insides of the container (not the eggs) indicate that proper humidity is being maintained. Substrate medium may need to be remoistened periodically by adding some water.


Elizabeth Freer
09-26-2012, 06:59 AM
Gut Loading the Feeders versus Feeding the Feeders 24/7
The term "gut loading" causes some confusion.

Feed insects and worms 365/24/7 with a high quality dry diet including high calcium/low phosphorus leafy greens like collard, mustard, and turnip greens, and pesticide-free dandelion flowers and greens to fill the insects' and worms' guts. That diet is passed on to your geckos.

In addition some keepers also place feeders about to be eaten into a separate container while feeding them ONLY some extra high calcium product like Mazuri High Calcium Gut Loading Diet for 24-48 hours prior to feeding these off to geckos or lizards. Water is offered in a safe manner too.

If you feed the feeders other foods during this time, they'll prefer those to a 24-48 hour gutload. They taste better than a "technical" gutload. Mazuri's High Calcium Gut Loading Diet is a pre-feed gutload only, not a 365/24/7 food source.

Both methods could be used for maximum benefit.

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I use finely ground Zoo Med's Natural Adult Bearded Dragon Food as the 24/7 dry diet for my crickets and dubia. Purina Layena Crumbles is also a good 24/7 dry insect and worm diet. (In a pinch whole grain TOTAL...only 2% protein per serving---can be fed.)

Also click: 1 lb Pro Gutload - Professional Reptiles (http://www.professionalreptiles.com/supplies/food-and-water/insect-food/1-lb-pro-gutload.html)

Collard greens, pesticide-free dandelion greens/flowers, mustard greens, and turnip greens are excellent. Foods containing high purine and high alkaline levels should be limited, because those foods fed in excess can increase uric acid and make your reptile more susceptible to gout. Foods containing moderate oxalate levels (kale) can be fed sparingly.

Alfalfa meal was recommended by my exotics vet. The Reptile Supply Company based in Sacramento, California carries alfalfa meal, bee powder, chlorella, spirulina, and strawberry powder.

Feed adequate protein level foods 24/7. I recommend about 16% protein and only 3% fat.

IF crickets and other feeders are fed good protein level foods 24/7, then they will always be nutritious.
IF crickets and other feeders are only fed veggies and fruits, upkeep is greater, stinky crickets are nearly a given, and cricket longevity is decreased.
My orders of 1/2 grown crickets stay alive nearly 2 months using these methods.

Click: NDL/FNIC Food Composition Database Home Page (http://ndb.nal.usda.gov/)

Click: https://ndb.nal.usda.gov/ndb/search/list

Elizabeth Freer
09-29-2012, 07:20 PM
The SMR (standard metabolic rate) is the number of calories needed by a reptile to meet its daily requirements. Animals that are severely malnourished should only be given 50% of their calories for the first 1-4 days.

1 cc = 1 ml

Repta+Boost Instructions
for a 1-5 gram gecko

Mix 1 spoonful of the Repta+Boost powder (using the spoon that came with the Repta+Boost) with 1 cc/ml of warm (80-85 F) water. Use the syringe to measure the water. Then measure half of 0.1 cc/ml (0.05 cc/ml) into the syringe. Try syringing the food on your gecko's nose.

For severely malnourished geckos:
feed a 1 gram gecko 0.1 cc/ml divided into 2-3 doses during the same day

feed a 5 gram gecko 0.2 cc/ml divided into 2-3 daily doses

The total number of daily calories should be divided into 2-3 meals daily so as not to stress the kidneys.

Hopefully your gecko will lick this off his nose. Much less stressful than force feeding.:sad:

Added by XO (May 2013):
reptaboost instructions

Weigh your pet to determine the amount of Repta+Boost it will require. (If you do not have a scale, refer to the general weight reference to determine your animal's dosage. For mixing directions and appropriate dosing volumes, please refer to Table 1.) Always mix Repta+Boost with warm water (80-85°F). Using cooler water could reduce the body temperature of the reptile, creating additional stress. Pull the correct amount of Repta+Boost into the syringe. You may have to dose (re-fill the syringe) an animal several times depending upon its body weight. Place the dose syringe to the mouth of the reptile or amphibian and gently infuse the Repta+Boost. If the animal does not lap the solution, then gently open the animal's mouth with the tip of the syringe. Do not pry the mouth open as you may break the animal's teeth or injure its mouth. Once the mouth is open, gently instill the solution. The glottis, or opening to the airway, is located on the floor of the oral cavity. Do not introduce liquid into the airway, as it can lead to aspiration pneumonia. The total number of calories may be split into 2-3 meals per day. Repta+Boost should be used until the reptile is eating and drinking on its own. If the animal does not show any improvement after 7-10 days, consult your veterinarian.

Elizabeth Freer
10-10-2012, 03:11 AM
Click: http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/n00b-central/63779-gecko-purchase-plan-before-you-buy.html

Check for good calcium and multivitamin supplementation in the leo's past.

NO abnormal gait/walking
NO pencil thin tails

Elizabeth Freer
10-10-2012, 03:14 AM
"Vets should now be able to test for crypto via a swab of the vent which makes it unnecessary to provide fresh feces."

"If you're concerned about crypto 'here's your best bet: take him to the vet to be tested for crypto. In 2 months, have him re-tested. There's no absolute guarantee, but it's likely that if he's negative both times, you may be OK.'

"I know crypto is contagious (I have a houseful of crypto positive geckos), but if you consider the number of geckos in pet stores that are crypto positive, where the pet stores don't decontaminate properly, and the fact that the gecko that probably brought the crypto to my collection was sold to me by a reputable breeder, if it were 100% transmissible, there would probably not be any geckos in captivity that didn't have crypto."

"If the gecko had watery stools, lost (considerable) weight, and died very skinny, it could have been crypto."

Aliza (December 2017 & April 2019)

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Ammonia and bleach should never be mixed. That combination will emit toxic fumes which are bad for both you and the animals.

"If you want to be absolutely sure when disinfecting, use ammonia. Ammonia is the only thing effective at killing crypto, giardia, and coccidia oocysts."

---Thanks to Mardy (10 July 2013)

However, even ammonia does not totally eradicate ALL oocysts. Even at the highest concentration of ammonia, a small fraction of viable oocysts still remain.

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2019 article contributed by Brie Ernst --
Click: https://azeah.com/lizards/cryptosporidiosis
2018 article contributed by Sg612 --
Click: https://juniperpublishers.com/jdvs/pdf/JDVS.MS.ID.555718.pdf
Click: Cleaning, Disinfecting and Sterilizing (Reptiles) (http://www.anapsid.org/cleaning.html)
Click: http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/pests-and-diseases/62822-cleaning-reptile-cages.html?highlight=Cleaning+Reptile+Enclosures

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For detailed Cryptosporidiosis information click: Cryptosporidium for Birds and Reptiles (http://www.animalgenetics.us/Reptile/cryptosporidiumreptile.asp)

"Animal Genetics offers PCR testing for Cryptosporidium in both birds and reptiles.
Cryptosporidium does affect many other animals including humans.

Animal Genetics Inc.
USA: 800-514-9672
Email: contact@AnimalGenetics.US
Click: Avian Services Center: DNA sexing and disease testing for all species of birds. (http://www.avianbiotech.com/Index.htm)

/\ Does crypto testing by mail


Click: https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/cryptosporidium/symptoms-causes/syc-20351870
Click: https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/cryptosporidium/diagnosis-treatment/drc-20351876
Click: Stick Tail Disease in Leopard Geckos (http://www.reptilesmagazine.com/Stick-Tail-Disease-in-Leopard-Geckos/)

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Use ammonia to sterilize a glass tank. Bleach does not kill crypto. Toss the cage furniture.

"I want to explain the reason why I think it is best to just throw everything out. I have read several of these and the results varied.

Click: Inactivation of Cryptosporidium parvum Oocysts by Ammonia (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC106120/)
Even at the highest concentration of ammonia, a small fraction of viable oocysts still remained.
Click: Prevalence of cryptosporidium infection and characteristics of oocyst shedding in a breeding colony of leopard geckos (Eublepharis macularius). - PubMed - NCBI (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19110703)"

---Thanks to cricket4u

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Can anything help cryptosporidiosis?

Click: http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/pests-and-diseases/24500-help-cryptosporidiosis.html

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Elizabeth Freer
10-13-2012, 11:20 PM
Hilde's reply to Leopard Gecko Banunu's thread: origin of flap under Banunu's chin---
"That skin flap under her chin is one of the signs of a Vitamin A (and possibly Vit D) shortage in at least the mother, if not both parents.

You mentioned they claimed to have had a 'bad batch' of leopards, and you also suspect she has poor vision. She had a bad shed to the point where she lost some toes. This all adds up to a Vit A/D shortage in her, and in the parents which then affected their offspring. By any chance, did you notice if any of the geckos in that 'bad batch' had nicked/split eyelids?

: Promotes bone growth, teeth development.
: Helps form and maintain healthy skin, hair, mucous membranes.
: Builds body's resistance to respiratory infections.
: Essential for normal function of retina. Combines with purple pigment of retina (opsin) to form rhodopsin, which is necessary for sight in partial darkness.
: Necessary for proper testicular function, ovarian function, embryonic development, regulation of growth, differentiation of tissues.

19 March 2016: "The vitamin A from animal sources is called retinol, while plant source vitamin A is carotenoids, such as beta-carotene.

"Animal sources of retinol are bio-available, the gecko can use it 'as is', no extra processing needed. The vitamin A from plant sources has to be converted to retinol before it can be used.

"This is what the geckos have trouble with - they don't absorb beta-carotene very well, so they don't have enough to convert to the 'finished' vitamin A. Some species also seem to have trouble converting it to pre-formed vitamin A (retinol).

"You can increase the beta-carotene rich content of the gutload as much as you want, but it won't benefit the geckos any. They still can't convert it properly, no matter how much you stuff into a cricket."

: Plays a key role in the absorption of calcium for bone and tooth development.
: Affects cardiovascular health, immune system, cancer prevention
: Has a major role in muscle development & strength
: Key role in mental health and depression avoidance

VITAMINS A & D interaction with other substances:
: Calcium decreases absorption of fat-soluble Vitamins A, D, E and K.

You can't see the Vitamin A shortage easily, except for possibly poor vision and/or aim when hunting. Rough skin is usually shrugged off as a 'bit of a bad shed' and hope it works better next time. If not.... well, we'll just remove the stuck skin with a cotton pad.

Lethargy and weakness might be chalked up to many things including boredom or brumation, never a thought that it could hint at a Vitamin D shortage.

CALCIUM - excess:
Excess calcium in the digestive tract can hinder absorption of vitamins A and D (we won't worry about E & K here). MBD is often considered to be caused by a shortage of calcium, but can happen even though there is ample calcium available. If there's not enough Vit D available, either stored in the liver or absorbed via food/supplements, then there won't be enough calcium absorbed. If you suspect a calcium shortage, it's easy to increase the amount available by dusting more often, even to the point of 'icing' the bugs with calcium, all of which just puts more calcium into the intestines but allowing less and less Vitamin A & D to be absorbed.... a vicious circle. The result is a gecko with possible MBD (even if it gets a calcium supplement), and a severe shortage of Vitamin A & D.

And so it continues.... more calcium, less vitamin A & D.

The next big worry is the next generation. Vitamin A and/or D imbalance can affect the young - offspring might hatch tiny, maybe shorter than normal tails, missing or deformed eyelids, a pouch-like flap of skin under the chin (looks like a tiny dewlap), weak, poor vision or even blind, weak or even deformed bones, including skull. It gets shrugged off as one of those things, after all, even in the wild they don't all hatch perfect.

Who would have thought that it could be traced to excess calcium?

Some people shy away from supplementing with pre-formed Vitamin A. It's been proven that geckos need it, they can't convert beta-carotene well enough to make do with just that. If the parents of your gecko were only supplemented with beta-carotene, no pre-formed Vit A, then they were prime candidates for a Vit A deficiency, and their offspring suffered the consequences. At the very least, add some pre-formed Vit A to the supplements a few times a month. Most can be beta-carotene, but the bit of pre-formed A will tide them over until they get enough beta-carotene converted."

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Related post #48 here: Can plain calcium carbonate be overdosed? Check link from post #5 onwards......

Elizabeth Freer
10-30-2012, 03:25 AM
Click: http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/leopard-geckos-food-feeding-issues/68574-cricket-guidelines.html

~ Hassle-free Cricket Care ~
Geckos Unlimited/Pacific Northwest Herpetological Society
13 February 2016 (amended)

Reduce the frequency of powdered supplements if you feed your insects and worms a high quality dry diet 24/7 like Zoo Med's Natural Adult Bearded Dragon Food, Albers' All Purpose Poultry Feed, or Purina Layena Sunfresh Crumbles.
Exceptional gecko thirst could be a red flag that you are overdoing the multivitamins and/or the vitamin D3.
Gecko urates should be pure white. Yellow urates are NOT good.
Strive for a ratio of 1.5-2.0 calcium:1.0 phosphorus from the foods we feed insects and subsequently feed our geckos.

Keep the dry diet DRY! Remove the paper towel to dampen. :)

Click USDA Foods list: Foods List (http://ndb.nal.usda.gov/ndb/search/list)

Click for research on dry insect diets: http://www.timberlinefisheries.com/v/vspfiles/assets/images/finke%20et%20al_2005_evaluation%20of%20four%20dry% 20commercial%20gut%20loading%20products%20for%20im proving%20the%20calcium%20content%20of%20crickets. pdf

Some Very Good 24/7 Dry Cricket Diets
(1) Finely ground Zoo Med's Natural Adult Bearded Dragon Food......Thanks to GU's Geckologist.tj (October 2013)

Natural Bearded Dragon Food Adult Formula (http://www.zoomed.com/db/products/EntryDetail.php?EntryID=222&SearchID=1&SearchContext=YTo1OntzOjQ6IlBhZ2UiO3M6MToiMiI7czo4 OiJTZWFyY2hJRCI7czoxOiIxIjtzOjEwOiJEYXRhYmFzZUlEIj tzOjE6IjIiO3M6NzoiSGVhZGluZyI7czo5OiJUZXJyYXJpdW0i O3M6MTU6IlByb2R1Y3RDYXRlZ29yeSI7czo0OiJGb29kIjt9)
Be alert for any fiber-based issues with Zoo Med's Natural Adult Bearded Dragon Food (fiber = 16%).
(2) Albers' All Purpose Poultry Feed: 800-457-2804
Albers' Dealer Locator http://www.albersfeed.com/poultry/poultry-feed/albers-all-purpose-poultry-and-water-fowl.aspx Looks like Albers' is available in western USA including Alaska, Hawaii, and Guam.
(3) Purina Layena Sunfresh Crumbles

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By following these tips it is very easy to keep your crickets alive and thriving one to two months past purchase:

Take a suitably sized container, for instance, an extra large Kritter Keeper or a 56 quart Sterilite bin. Place finely ground Zoo Med's Natural Adult Bearded Dragon Food, Albers' All Purpose Poultry Feed, or Purina Layena Sunfresh Crumbles on the bottom of the cage. Vitamin A acetate is an important ingredient of the dry food. Add your crickets. Next cover with a double layer of egg cartons. On top of the egg cartons place a paper towel. Keep crickets between 70 F and the mid 80s. They will grow faster if warmer, but do fine at 70 F.

Add high calcium/low phosphorus veggies to the side like collard greens, mustard greens, turnip greens, and dandelion flowers/greens.

Spray the paper towel generously once a day to provide moisture for your crickets. Some people use water gel crystals.

General Mills' dry cereal whole grain TOTAL can be used in a pinch.

Do not feed insects dog food, cat food, or fish flakes. Those are way too high in protein and fat and potentially could cause hepatic lipidosis and gout. Foods containing high purine and high alkaline levels should be limited. Those foods fed in excess can increase uric acid and make your reptile more susceptible to gout as well.

Do not feed freeze-dried or canned insects or worms to your geckos. All geckos need moisture from well-hydrated prey as well as the nutrients such prey provides.

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25 Feb 2013 - Hilde
"The only way to properly regulate vitamin and mineral intake, calcium in particular, is to only supply it via gutloading and dusting. Dusting is only secondary, the most important thing is to use the proper gutload."

2 March 2013 - Hilde
Captured from post #134, 27 Feb 2013, on "spoiled by crickets" thread in the crestie forum:
"If you feed the insects a decent diet full time, not just a day before feeding them off, you really improve the nutrients they'll provide - build a better body, not just fill the relatively short intestinal tract."

Scroll to the 3rd post in that /\ thread for suggestions about breeding crickets.

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"Light supplemental dusting" of crickets, Blaptica dubia, and mealworms is like a "sprinkling of powdered sugar upon a cake". Using a tall plastic deli cup add a pinch of the vitamin or calcium powder in the bottom, then add crickets, then gently swirl. A 1 tablespoon sized measuring spoon can be used to scoop crickets out of this container.

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"Gutloading" the Feeders 24-48 hours before feeding them off versus Feeding the Feeders 24/7
The term gutloading causes some confusion. Feed your geckos' insects and worms a nutritious regular diet all the time to build strong feeder bodies.

Elizabeth Freer
11-05-2012, 02:07 AM
Zoo Med Repti Calcium with vitamin D3---phosphorus-free ***Highly RECOMMENDED***
38%-43% precipitated calcium carbonate
Vitamin D3: 22,907 IU/kg, 10,390 IU/pound

Zoo Med Repti Calcium with D3 Reptile supplement is a phosphorus-free calcium supplement for reptiles and amphibians. We use only precipitated calcium carbonate which is white in color and is essentially lead free. Pure calcium carbonate is white, not gray. Impurities in other sources of calcium carbonate (e.g. oyster shell calcium) cause the supplement to appear gray. The calcium carbonate particles in Repti Calcium have a unique shape, and an extremely high surface area per gram, resulting in increased calcium bioavailability. With Repti Calcium, you can take comfort in knowing that your reptiles are getting a highly bioavailable source of calcium carbonate that is free of harmful impurities. Reptiles maintained indoors may benefit from supplemental vitamin D3 in their diet. Our formula contains safe levels of vitamin D3 when used as prescribed.

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Rep-Cal Calcium with vitamin D3---phosphorus-free......:-( Extremely high D3 content & oyster shell calcium carbonate
35%-40% natural oyster shell calcium carbonate
Vitamin D3: 400,000 IU/kg

At 400,000 IU/kg, D3 Rep-Cal calcium contains 17x more D3 than does Zoo Med's D3 Repti Calcium!

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Fluker's Calcium with vitamin D3---phosphorus-free......:-( Extremely high D3 content
Click: Fluker's Calcium with D3 (http://www.flukerfarms.com/repta-calcium.aspx)
No less than 36% Ca from limestone flour, flavor
Vitamin D3 minimum: 100,000 IU/pound

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Exo Terra's Calcium with vitamin D3---phosphorus-free......:( Contains dextrose (sugar) & oyster shell flour

Click: Exo Terra : Calcium + D3 / Calcium + D3 Powder Supplement (http://www.exo-terra.com/en/products/powder_calcium_d3.php)

1. North America
Calcium carbonate, oyster shell flour, dextrose, Vitamin D3 supplement.


Moisture (max) 12.0%
Calcium (min) 35.0%
Calcium (max) 37.0%
Vitamin D3 14,740 IU/lb (XXX IU/kg)
2. EU
Calcium carbonate (35%), ground oyster shells, salt.
Contains EU permitted additives.


Calcium 35%
Vitamin D3 65 mg/kg

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Here's what I know about Exo Terra multivitamins. It's important for geckos to have a wee pinch of preformed vitamin A (retinol) in their diets at one feeding per week.

Exo Terra multivitamins contain beta carotene instead of preformed vitamin A (retinol). Chances are geckos cannot metabolize beta carotene. So Vitamin A deficiency would result. Exo Terra multivitamins also fall short on vitamins and minerals, such as missing vitamin B12.

post 77---Reptile Multivitamins
Click: Exo Terra : Multi Vitamin / Multi Vitamin Powder Supplement (http://www.exo-terra.com/en/products/powder_multi_vitamin.php)

I recommend switching to Zoo Med's Reptivite multivitamins without D3 and Zoo Med's Repti Calcium with D3 (2 separate bottles).

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Repashy's Calcium Plus all-in-one multivitamins

Click July 2017 thread recommending dosage frequency (scroll to the end): http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/leopard-geckos-health-and-diseases-/83432-baby-leopard-gecko-pink.html
Click: Repashy Super Foods, Crested Gecko Diet | Multivitamins & Calcium for reptiles (http://www.repashy.co.uk/lilly-exotics/calcium-plus)

Calcium Carbonate, Dried Kelp, Dried Brewer’s Yeast, RoseHips, Calendula Flower, Marigold Flower, Paprika, Hibiscus Flower, Algae Meal, Turmeric, Rosemary Extract, Natural Fruit Flavor, Magnesium Amino Acid Chelate, Zinc Methionine Hydroxy Analogue Chelate, Manganese Methionine Hydroxy Analogue Chelate, Copper Methionine Hydroxy Analogue Chelate, Selenium Yeast. Vitamins: (Vitamin A Supplement, Vitamin D3 Supplement, Calcium L-Ascorbyl-2-Monophosphate, Vitamin E Supplement, Niacin, Beta Carotene, Pantothenic Acid, Riboflavin, Pyridoxine Hydrochloride, Thiamine Mononitrate, Menadione Sodium Bisulfite Complex, Folic Acid, Biotin, Vitamin B-12 Supplement).


Crude Protein min. .2%
Crude Fat min. .2%
Crude Fiber max. 4%
Moisture max. 8%
Calcium min. 17%
Vitamin A min. 200,000 IU/lb
Vitamin D min. 20,000 IU/lb
Vitamin E min. 2,000 IU/lb

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Click: National Geographic™ Calcium Supplement Powder | Health & Wellness | PetSmart (http://www.petsmart.com/reptile/health-wellness/national-geographic-trade-calcium-supplement-powder-zid36-26775/cat-36-catid-500007) -- :(

INGREDIENTS: Calcium Carbonate, Vitamin D3 Supplement


Max. Moisture 2.0%
Min. Calcium 0.38%
Min. Vit. D3 45,359 IU/kg

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Sticky Tongue Farm's Miner-All Indoor calcium/mineral supplement with vitamin D3
vitamin D3: 4,400 IU/kg

Calcium Carbonate, Dextrose, Zinc Sulfate, Manganese Sulfate, Magnesium Oxide, D-Activated Animal Sterol (source of Vitamin D-3 Miner-All Indoor only), Iron Sulfate, Copper Sulfate, Ethyione Diamine Dihydriod ide,Cobalt Sulfate, Sodium Selenite, Iron Oxide, Natural Berry flavors

TRACE ELEMENTS (from aquatic naturally grown aquatic vegetation):
Sulfur, Aluminum, Silicon, Copper, Bromine, Barium, Tellurium, Yttrium, Sodium, Lanthanum, Uranium, Neodymium, 44 Cerium, Titanium, Vanadium, Niobium, Dysporosium, Gadolinium, Erbium, Ytterbium, Germinium, Praseodymium, Samarium, Thallium, Scandium, Rubidium, Nickel, Holmium, Tin, Thorium, Europium, Terbium, Palladium, Gallium, Chromium, Lutecium, Thulium, Tungsten, Antimony, Cesium, Bismuth, Rhodium, Tantalum, Rhenium, Osmium, Iridium.

Elizabeth Freer
11-09-2012, 06:50 PM
(click to enlarge)

Elizabeth Freer

Click: https://www.healthyfoodhouse.com/dandelions-are-not-weeds-they-build-bones-better-than-calcium-cleanse-the-liver-and-can-treat-eczema-and-psoriasis/?fbclid=IwAR1u50zcBkUdE7ozr6fY0eaXupBWWupIRv41d45D u57s6FvQBGxIGh3MoM4


Click: Growing Dandelion Greens: Tips For How To Grow Dandelions (http://www.gardeningknowhow.com/edible/vegetables/greens/growing-dandelion.htm)
Click this 2016 thread: http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/off-topic-lounge/80377-growing-dandelion-greens.html?highlight=Dandelion+Growing+Tips

JIMI & JessJohnson87

Click: The Anatomy of Gut-Loading | Ingredients & Nutritional Info | Much Ado About Chameleons (http://www.muchadoaboutchameleons.com/2014/07/the-anatomy-of-gut-loading-ingredients.html)


Click: Vegetable Chart | Nutrient chart | Vitamins and minerals in common vegetables (http://www.health-alternatives.com/vegetables-nutrition-chart.html)

Elizabeth Freer
11-10-2012, 06:38 PM
(~18 November 2012)

Hey all,

I finally have my setup the way that I am going to keep it, with the exception of a hanging vine or two for the back corners of the enclosure. I was doing some math to figure up how much money I have invested in all of this, and thought I would take a minute to share the products that I use and the cost associated with them.

When adding all the products together I have spent about $370.00, not including shipping and handling of the stuff I ordered online. The products that I am using and links to them are below:


Click: Amazon.com: Zilla R'Zilla 28021 20-Gallon Long Critter Cage, 30-Inch by 12-Inch by 12-Inch, Black: Pet Supplies (http://www.amazon.com/Zilla-28021-20-Gallon-Critter-30-Inch/dp/B0017694AI)

Heating and Lighting

Click: Amazon.com: Fluker's 8.5" Repta Clamp Lamp with Switch: Pet Supplies (http://www.amazon.com/Flukers-Repta-Clamp-Lamp-Switch/dp/B0002DHODG/ref=sr_1_2?s=pet-supplies&ie=UTF8&qid=1352582887&sr=1-2&keywords=flukers+clamp+lamp)

Zoo Med Deep Dome Lamp 10 inch
Click: Amazon.com: Zoo Med Deep Dome Lamp Fixture, Black: Pet Supplies (http://www.amazon.com/Zoo-Med-Deep-Fixture-Black/dp/B000QFVYEU/ref=sr_1_cc_1?s=aps&ie=UTF8&qid=1352583129&sr=1-1-catcorr&keywords=zoo+med+deep+dome)

Click: Amazon.com: Zoo Med ReptiCare Ceramic Infrared Heat Emitter 100 Watts: Pet Supplies (http://www.amazon.com/Zoo-Med-ReptiCare-Ceramic-Infrared/dp/B001F9CV7K/ref=sr_1_1?s=pet-supplies&ie=UTF8&qid=1352583183&sr=1-1&keywords=ceramic+heat+emitter)

Click: BAH-1000DC Reptile Thermostat New Model - Incredibly Reliable Digital Chip for Accurate Temperature Control (http://www.bigappleherp.com/BAH-1000-Thermostat)

Click: Amazon.com: Zoo Med ReptiTherm® Under Tank Heater, Small: Pet Supplies (http://www.amazon.com/Zoo-Med-ReptiTherm%C2%AE-Under-Heater/dp/B0002AQCKA/ref=sr_1_cc_1?s=aps&ie=UTF8&qid=1352583939&sr=1-1-catcorr&keywords=reptile+heat+mat+zoo+med)

Click: Amazon.com: Hydrofarm MTPRTC Digital Thermostat For Heat Mats: Patio, Lawn & Garden (http://www.amazon.com/Hydrofarm-MTPRTC-Digital-Thermostat-Heat/dp/B000NZZG3S/ref=sr_1_cc_1?s=aps&ie=UTF8&qid=1352583761&sr=1-1-catcorr&keywords=reptile+Heat+Mat+thermostat)

Click: Amazon.com: HDE Temperature Gun Infrared Thermometer w/ Laser Sight: Home Improvement (http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/B002YE3FS4/ref=oh_details_o01_s00_i00)


Click: Ultimate Rock Climbable Reptile Backgrounds - Realistic, Beautiful, Durable Habitat Backgrounds for Lizards and Snakes (http://www.bigappleherp.com/Ultimate-Rock-Climbable-Reptile-Backgrounds?sc=2&category=23147)


MARAZZI Montagna 6 in. x 6 in. Cortina Porcelain Floor and Wall Tile
Click: Montagna 6 in. x 6 in. Cortina Porcelain Floor and Wall Tile-UF3Z at The Home Depot (http://www.homedepot.com/h_d1/N-5yc1v/R-100645908/h_d2/ProductDisplay?catalogId=10053&langId=-1&keyword=porcelain+tile+6x6&storeId=10051)


Click: Amazon.com: Exo Terra Gecko Cave for Reptiles, Medium: Pet Supplies (http://www.amazon.com/Exo-Terra-Gecko-Reptiles-Medium/dp/B008YDHDD2/ref=sr_1_114?s=pet-supplies&ie=UTF8&qid=1352584526&sr=1-114&keywords=exo+terra)
Click: Amazon.com: Exo Terra Reptile Cave, Medium: Pet Supplies (http://www.amazon.com/Exo-Terra-Reptile-Cave-Medium/dp/B001F3YJ9O/ref=sr_1_1?s=pet-supplies&ie=UTF8&qid=1352584610&sr=1-1&keywords=exo+terra+reptile+hide)
Click: Amazon.com: Zilla 11799 Bark Bends, Medium: Pet Supplies (http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/B001OVD6QO/ref=oh_details_o00_s00_i00)
Click: Amazon.com: Zilla 11424 5-Inch Desert Series Terrarium Plant, Me-Inch by Ican Saguaro Cactus: Pet Supplies (http://www.amazon.com/Zilla-11424-Terrarium-Me-Inch-Saguaro/dp/B00176ETDK/ref=sr_1_7?s=pet-supplies&ie=UTF8&qid=1352584742&sr=1-7&keywords=reptile+cactus)

Mainstays Jumbo Tealight Holder - food and water dishes
Click: Mainstays Jumbo Tealight Holder: Decor : Walmart.com (http://www.walmart.com/ip/Mainstays-Jumbo-Tealight-Holder/16777024)

Vitamins and Supplements

Click:Amazon.com: Calcium Carbonate Powder, 12 oz. From NOW: Health & Personal Care (http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/B009K72OPS/ref=oh_details_o02_s00_i00)
Click: Amazon.com: Miner-All Calcium/Mineral supplement, Indoor: Pet Supplies (http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/B004JP3XJ2/ref=oh_details_o03_s00_i00)
Click: Zoo Med Reptivite Reptile Vitamins Without D3 8 Oz | eBay (http://www.ebay.com/itm/Zoo-Med-ReptiVite-Reptile-Vitamins-without-D3-8-oz-/400163786191)
Get a much smaller container :-)

Elizabeth Freer
11-11-2012, 03:32 AM
Click: http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/aussie-geckos-diplodactylus-strophurus-saltuaris-phyllurus-oedura/49658-seramis-incubation-medium.html#post280739

Elizabeth Freer
11-13-2012, 12:44 PM
Click: Substrates for Reptiles: Caveat Emptor (http://www.anapsid.org/substrates.html)

thanks to Hilde

Elizabeth Freer
11-17-2012, 11:40 PM
Zoo Med's D3 ReptiVite™ multivitamins

vitamin D3 = 22,907 IU/kg, 10,390 IU/pound
vitamin A acetate (retinol) = 220,264 IU/kg
calcium = 24.9% min, 28% max
phosphorus = 10.6% minimum, but NO maximum listed

***Zoo Med's plain (no D3) ReptiVite™***

vitamin A acetate =
calcium =
phosphorus =

+ ***Zoo Med's D3 Repti Calcium---phosphorus-free***

vitamin D3 - 22,907 IU/kg, 10,390 IU/pound
precipitated calcium carbonate = 38%-43%

Lightly dust insects or worms with ReptiVite™ without D3 @ 1 feeding per week, no more than that. Also lightly dust insects or worms with Repti Calcium with D3 @ 1 other feeding per week.

Do not exceed the weekly amount of ReptiVite™ per body weight. Spread the total amount of dusted insects throughout the week. That provides a more balanced diet. Some of us are uncomfortable dusting as frequently as suggested. Instead feed insects and worms a high quality dry diet 24/7 to cover the basics. Add high calcium, low phosphorus, veggies to the side.

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Click: http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/gekko-including-tokay-golden-white-lined-etc/79534-cork-rounds-drying-geckos-feetsies.html

"Dr. Scott Stahl, the premiere reptile vet, highly recommends the Zoo Med product, ReptiVite™. Originally formulated for zoos, it seems to work better than any other product I've tried including the Repashy supplements.

"My gut load mix includes paprika for Vitamin A. I also include carrot and dandelion greens for their moisture and other vitamins and nutrients. Plant-based vitamins and minerals are always more assimilable that manufactured supplements." Thanks to GU's billewicz (Michael)

(Reptivite with D3)

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With vitamin D3: ReptiVite (http://zoomed.com/db/products/EntryDetail.php?SearchID=5&DatabaseID=2&EntryID=3)

Without vitamin D3: ReptiVite? without D3 (http://www.zoomed.com/db/products/EntryDetail.php?EntryID=229&DatabaseID=2&SearchID=1&SearchContext=YTo3OntzOjg6IlNlYXJjaElEIjtzOjE6IjEi O3M6MTA6IkRhdGFiYXNlSUQiO3M6MToiMiI7czo3OiJLZXl3b3 JkIjtzOjIwOiJWaXRhbWlucy9TdXBwbGVtZW50cyI7czoxNToi UHJvZHVjdENhdGVnb3J5IjtzOjIwOiJWaXRhbWlucy9TdXBwbG VtZW50cyI7czo3OiJIZWFkaW5nIjtzOjk6IlRlcnJhcml1bSI7 czo4OiJTZWFyY2hfeCI7czoxOiIwIjtzOjg6IlNlYXJjaF95Ij tzOjE6IjAiO30=)

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"Zoo Med is proud to offer ReptiVite™ with D3, a complete vitamin, mineral, and amino acid complex specifically formulated for reptiles. ReptiVite™ is calcium based to ensure healthy bone growth with the correct 2:1 calcium to phosphorus ratio. Originally developed for the San Diego Zoo to correct soft-shell problems in turtles, it is now used by some of the most respected zoos and animal parks throughout the world. The first reptile vitamin to include the complete amino acid complex, an essential component in protein digestion. ReptiVite™ does not contain artificial additives or fillers like soy, yeast, or sucrose."

Guaranteed Analysis: Ingredients
Dicalcium Phosphate, Precipitated Calcium Carbonate, Maltodextrins, Salt, Potassium Chloride, Choline Bitartrate, Magnesium Oxide, L-Leucine, Manganese Sulfate, Ascorbic Acid, L-Arginine, L-Lysine Monohydrochloride, a-Tocopherol Acetate, L-Valine, L-Isoleucine, L-Threonine, L-Glutamine, L-Alanine, L-Glutamic Acid, Calcium Pantothenate, L-Phenylalanine, Dried Kelp, L-Tyrosine, Lecithin, Ferrous Fumarate, L-Cystine, L-Histidine, Glycine, DL-Methionine, L-Serine, L-Aspartic Acid, Niacin, Copper Sulfate, Zinc Oxide, Vitamin A Acetate, Riboflavin, Cholecalciferol (Source of Vitamin D3), Thiamine Hydrochloride, Folic Acid, Pyridoxine Hydrochloride, Menadione Sodium Bisulfite Complex, Biotin, Vitamin B12 Supplement.

Moisture & Minerals
% or PPM
per kg

Moisture (max) 2.5 %
Calcium (min) 24.9 % 249,000 mg
Calcium (max) 28.0 % 280,000 mg
Phosphorus (min) 10.6 % 105,730 mg
Salt (min) 4.2 % 42,000 mg
Salt (max) 4.9 % 49,000 mg
Potassium (min) 1.7 % 17,621 mg
Magnesium (min) 0.26 % 2,670 mg
Fluorine (max) 0.01 % 100 mg
Iron (min) 450 ppm 450 mg
Copper (min) 225 ppm 225 mg
Manganese (min) 1,000 ppm 1,000 mg
Zinc (min) 450 pp 450 mg
Iodine (min) 2.15 ppm 2.15 mg

Vitamins & Nutrients
(minimum amounts)
per lb
per kg

Vitamin A (acetate) 99,910 IU 220,264 IU
Vitamin D3 10,390 IU/kg, 22,907 IU/pound
Vitamin E 1,000 IU 2,200 IU
Vitamin K (Menadione) 20.43 mg 45.00 mg
Ascorbic Acid (Vitamin C) 1,406.2 mg 3,100.0 mg
Thiamine (Vitamin B1) 83.92 mg 185.0 mg
Riboflavin (Vitamin B2) 124.7 mg 275.0 mg
Pantothenic Acid (Vitamin B5) 861.8 mg 1,900.0 mg
Niacin 303.9 mg 670.0 mg
Pyridoxine (Vitamin B6) 30.4 mg 67.0 mg
Folic Acid 48.5 mg 107.0 mg
Biotin 12.2 mg 27.0 mg
Vitamin B12 3.04 mg 6.70 mg
Choline 848 mg 1,870 mg

Amino Acids
(minimum amounts)
per kg

L-Glutamine 0.24 % 2,400 mg
L-Arginine 0.36 % 3,550 mg
L-Isoleucine 0.26 % 2,550 mg
L-Threonine 0.24 % 2,390 mg
L-Tyrosine 0.18 % 1,760 mg
L-Valine 0.27 % 2,670 mg
Glycine 0.12 % 1,160 mg
L-Methionine 0.12 % 1,160 mg
L-Aspartic Acid 0.10 % 1,000 mg
L-Glutamic Acid 0.24 % 2,400 mg
L-Histidine 0.13 % 1,260 mg
L-Lysine 0.36 % 3,550 mg
L-Leucine 0.44 % 4,440 mg
L-Alanine 0.24 % 2,400 mg
L-Cystine 0.13 % 1,280 mg
L-Phenylalanine 0.23 % 2,290 mg
L-Serine 0.12 % 1,160 mg"

Elizabeth Freer
11-18-2012, 01:29 AM
This worked for me once when a small tiger gecko darted underneath my kitchen cupboards.

Take an 8 inch x 8 inch baking pan
Add small water dish with pebbles
Cover pan and water dish with egg carton flat
Add small lid of mashed bananas or fruit baby food OR some small crickets as "bait"
Mostly cover the whole thing with a lightweight cotton kitchen towel
Set this under a desk lamp containing a 25 or 40 watt bulb


You may find the gecko inside after some hours. Be prepared for the next step.

Have a deli cup or some other plastic container nearby as well as a flat piece of cardboard for a cover
Trap the gecko beneath the plastic container
Slide the cardboard underneath as a lid

:cheer: :cheer: :cheer:

Elizabeth Freer
11-18-2012, 03:26 AM
HBK's playground thanks to shabbybird -- 17 Nov 2012:

Elizabeth Freer
11-18-2012, 10:30 PM
Miner-All Indoor (contains vitamin D3 :-))

Click: http://www.stickytonguefarms.com/index.php?page=shop.product_details&flypage=flypage.tpl&category_id=13&product_id=40&option=com_virtuemart&Itemid=81
calcium carbonate -- 34-36%
vitamin D3 -- 4,400 IU per kg

Miner-All Outdoor

Click: Sticky Tongue Farms Miner-All OUTDOOR Formula (http://shop.reptilegeeks.com/681-sticky-tongue-miner-all-outdoor-formula.html)


Click: http://www.stickytonguefarms.com/index.php?page=shop.product_details&flypage=flypage.tpl&product_id=41&category_id=13&option=com_virtuemart&Itemid=81

Elizabeth Freer
11-23-2012, 08:51 PM
Click: Hornworm Guidelines (http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/leopard-geckos-food-and-feeding-issues-/68585-hornworm-guidelines.html#post391397)

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Buy very small hornworms. They will mushroom in size overnight, so only very briefly keep them at room temperature (70*F; 21.1*C). Then transfer them to either a Playmate picnic-type cooler or a wine cooler set at about 55*F (12.8*C). A basement may also be cool enough.

Size fed: about 1.5 inches long (~4 cm) to my 70ish gram/9 inch female leo.

Approximate nutritional content of hornworms (source Mulberry Farms)
Protein: 9%
Fat: 3%
Calcium: 46.4mg/100mg
Calcium : phosphorus ratio is 1:3 [Phosphorus impairs calcium absorption. Lightly dust hornworms with plain calcium carbonate to rebalance the calcium and phosphorus to a better ratio.]
Moisture: 85%

Tobacco hornworms (Manduca sexta) are teal or green soft-bodied worms that grow rapidly when kept at room temperature. They are high in calcium. French hornworms go by: vers de goliath. These worms look like mini turquoise candy canes :roll:.

Keep hornworms in either a Playmate picnic-type cooler or a wine cooler at about 55*F. Otherwise they will double in size a few days after purchase! In January 2015 a hornworm breeder told me that 50*F is too cold, that 50*F makes the hornworm food too tough for the youngest hornworms.

When kept by the following method, it's easy to keep hornworms alive (and of edible size for many leopard geckos) for 4+ weeks. Make sure the company includes enough food. Keep any extra food in the cooler with the hornworms, not in the refrigerator. If you keep the food in the refrigerator the food will get too hard for hornworms to eat.

[Thanks to GU's lbanta for this photo]

Hornworms grow rapidly when kept at normal room temperatures!
When the hornworms nearly reach a good size for feeding, place them (in container) into a cooler (picnic-type, wine) to lessen rapid growth.
Add 1 solid ice pack replaced 2x daily......every 12 hours.
Keep the temperature inside the cooler ~55*F (12.8*C).
Turn the hornworm container upside down so that their food is on the top and the lid is the new "base".
Elevate the hornworm container with egg flats or a couple pencils for ventilation.
Don't let the hornworm container touch the ice pack.
Empty the hornworm poop once a day.
Serve the hornworms plain at first. Then try very lightly dusting them with pure precipitated calcium carbonate (without vitamin D3) to further balance their calcium-to-phosphorus ratio.
Should a hornworm get mangled, clean up its green juice right away. The green "juice" is difficult to remove when dry.

For more hornworm info:
Great Lakes Hornworm Products (http://www.greatlakeshornworm.com/products)

Great Lakes Hornworm | America's Finest Source For Insects (http://www.greatlakeshornworm.com/)
Are these the things I see on my tomato plant?
Yes, but you cannot feed the hornworms on your tomato plants to your animals. Hornworms that eat tomato plants have toxins in their bodies that will kill your animals!

Feedback on Hornworms

from my female leopard gecko Cha: :drool:
from my mature crestie George: :scratchhead: ===> no interest in hornworms (accustomed to crickets)

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For additional hornworm details click: 05DecCaruthers (http://www.chameleonnews.com/05DecCaruthers.html) [Thanks to Hilde]

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Keeping Hornworms
"Best to purchase a wine cooler.


"Brand is Wine Enthusiast and costs $65 in Nov 2012. It's really quiet. Measures 20 inches front to back. 16" from side to side, and 14" from floor to top. You can see the temp on the front and can lower or raise the temp from the front. Mine is a 12 bottle, but it's a little cube.

"Set to 55*F to keep your hornworms alive till feeding. Being kept at 55*F really slows their growth!!!

"I take the racks out and lay the hornworm cups on their sides. Nice investment...and you should find some good deals at this time of year.

"This way hornworms can be kept at the proper temperature for your leopard gecko or other interested geckos. Got a batch of eggs and let them hatch then put them in. It works great for us folks who only have 1 lizard...(or maybe 2 someday) that want to keep food longer so it can be used up.

"Yes, the upfront cost is a bit, but the longterm ease and comfort is fabulous! If you are going to take care of lizards correctly and you need to keep hornworms around as a food source, then you need to the invest in a wine chiller. It is so comforting to know they are always at the correct temp and not growing really really fast!" [Thanks to Zena Reitano-Nesting, leo Prince Ali's mom]

JessJohnson87's leo

21785 21786
XoVictoryXo's leos

Elizabeth Freer
12-07-2012, 05:01 AM

Do not attempt to feed an emaciated/dehydrated gecko until the gecko's hydration status has been assessed by a veterinarian. In order to prevent further damage to the kidneys or liver, let the vet rehydrate your gecko. Only then assist feed.
To entice any gecko to open his mouth brush a thin dowel, a stainless steel gavage needle (with a rounded tip), or your finger horizontally past his lips. Stroke gecko's lips, gecko opens mouth, then insert water, food, or medicine. Be gentle. Never force the mouth open!

Click: Oxbow Animal Health | Oxbow Animal Health | Carnivore Care Professional Line | (http://www.oxbowanimalhealth.com/our-products/professional-line/carnivore-care/)


Have your gecko evaluated by a reptile vet first.
For geckos mix Carnivore Care with water into a consistency that's easy to draw up into a fat syringe.
Then syringe feed your gecko like this.
(click to enlarge)

Click: How to Assist Feed a Leopard Gecko? - YouTube (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9mIJmeebvss&feature=player_embedded)

Once opened Oxbow's Carnivore Care ONLY keeps 7 days in the refrigerator, because it has no preservatives. To keep Carnivore Care viable beyond 7 days Oxbow's vet and developer recommends:
Once opened FREEZE remaining Carnivore Care for up to 3 months in its own pouch. Place that pouch inside a Ziploc baggie or inside an airtight container. FREEZE!
Remove all air & seal.
Take necessary amounts out of the container directly from the freezer.
Then remove all air & reseal.
Replace the Carnivore Care back into the freezer.

Directions for Use:
As a general guideline, mix 2 parts Carnivore Care to 1 part warm water. The volume of water may be adjusted to obtain optimal feeding consistency. Amounts are general guidelines and should be adjusted based on patient condition. Divide into 2-4 feedings or as indicated by your veterinarian. Water should be available to the animal at all times.

Individual needs vary with age, genetics, activity level, and medical condition. Consult with a veterinarian for specific directions.

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Lafeber's EmerAid for Carnivors -- quite similar to Oxbow's Carnivore Care

Click: Emeraid Carnivore - Emeraid (http://emeraid.com/emeraid-carnivore/)

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Fluker's Repta+Boost
Refrigerate product to extend shelf life. Do NOT freeze!

Protein min 25%
Fat min 17%
Fiber max 2.5%
Moisture max 13%
Calcium min 0.60%
Phosphorus min 0.50%

Egg product, wheat flour, starch, isolated soy flour, corn oil, dried Brewer's yeast, dried kelp, calcium carbonate, dicalcium phosphate, pollen, dextrose, sodium chloride, potassium sorbate, (preservative), DL-methionine, lecithin, choline chloride supplement, potassium chloride, spirulina, manganese sulfate, mixed natural tocopherols (antioxidant), zinc sulfate, magnesium oxide, ascorbic acid, beta-carotene supplement, niacin, vitamin E supplement, copper sulfate, vitamin B 12 supplement, vitamin A acetate, calcium pantothenate, vitamin D3 supplement, pyridoxine hydrochloride, menadione sodium bisulfite complex, riboflavin, thiamine mononitrate, ethylene diamine dihydriodide, biotin supplement, folic acid, sodium selenite.

Elizabeth Freer
12-13-2012, 08:22 AM
Cleaning Reptile Cages

Click: http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/pests-diseases/62822-cleaning-reptile-cages.html

/\ That very informative thread includes a link to the steam cleaner purchased by pakinjak (Kevin J. Smith).

Click: Amazon.com - Shark Premium Portable Steam Pocket Includes 5 Cleaning Pockets + 2 Quick Release Wands - Clothes Steam Generators (http://www.amazon.com/Shark-Premium-Portable-Includes-Cleaning/dp/B0034EG5X0)

From post #9
"If you google handheld steamers, almost everything that comes up has many bad reviews. Stuff like- it starts then you only get a little steam, or it just stopped working, or it just dribbles, or it only runs for one minute.

"I ended up getting one from Bed Bath and Beyond, and it's worked well for me. It's called the shark. The one thing I definitely wanted was a flexible hose instead of the type that has a rigid nozzle. You can really get in tight spots with the hose. Click this link: Amazon.com - Shark Premium Portable Steam Pocket Includes 5 Cleaning Pockets + 2 Quick Release Wands - Clothes Steam Generators (http://www.amazon.com/Shark-Premium-Portable-Includes-Cleaning/dp/B0034EG5X0)

"If you sign up for BB&B's mailing list, they'll periodically send a 20% of coupon. I just waited for one and got a good deal." (thanks to pakinjak)

Elizabeth Freer
01-04-2013, 10:28 PM
Click: Wholesale Reptile Supplies & Feeders - Reptile Supply Company (http://www.reptilesupplyco.com/)

Reptile Supply Company, Inc.
Sacramento, California
For customer service email -- info@ReptileSupplyCo.com
Message only phone -- 800-750-9065

In addition to many herp products, this company sells superfoods (ABCss) in bulk: alfalfa meal, bee pollen, chlorella powder, spirulina powder, and strawberry powder.

They also stock Zoo Med's Reptivite multivitamins without D3!

Elizabeth Freer
01-04-2013, 10:59 PM
Information provided by my nearby exotics vet

Refrigerate, DO NOT FREEZE, the deceased gecko in a ziploc bag immediately. (Gecko may be wrapped in a dry paper towel.)

Bring the body no later than about 36 hours after death to your vet who can send it to a vet pathologist. The sooner the better!

Keep the body cool with cold packs while enroute to your vet. AGAIN, do not freeze.

The body will be preserved in formalin by the vet and then routed to a veterinary pathologist.

2013 "Local" Cost

$29.00 - visual
$119.50 - up to 6 tissue samples, then $15 per additional sample
August 2015
histopathology - ~$300

Elizabeth Freer
01-06-2013, 08:00 AM
Internal Mounting Hardware
The best way to retain heat and humidity is to mount your fixtures inside a fully enclosed cage. This hardware will screw into your cage and fastens to one of our dome fixtures on the other end. Hardware allows you to swivel your fixture and direct the light how you choose. We can custom install threaded inserts when purchasing this option so all you have to do is screw your fixture in when you get your cage (note location below). It is also recommended that you order a cord hole grommet in close proximity to your fixture so you can get the cord outside the cage without a huge, unsightly hole that could allow your animal to escape. Exclusive from CBD!

Click: Internal Mounting Hardware (http://www.cagesbydesign.com/p-3-internal-mounting-hardware.aspx)

Make sure that there exists NO possibility for your gecko/lizard to make body contact with such a mounted fixture!!!

Thanks to cricket4u

Elizabeth Freer
01-12-2013, 06:25 AM
NOW brand -- human grade pure calcium carbonate
Zoo Med



JBL Micro Calcium

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Exo Terra's "plain" calcium powder contains other ingredients. For those reasons I do not recommend it.

"The plain calcium should be plain, yet Exo Terra's contain extras such as copper, ferrous fumarate (great for constipation and toxicity) which should be in the multivitamin supplement. Then again it just says calcium powder supplement. Very confusing and dangerous for those not familiar with ingredients." cricket4u - 26 July 2013

"If this is the product you are leaving in the enclosure, I suggest that you remove it ASAP and buy Zoo Med Repti-calcium without D3. Exo-terra contains a few ingredients such as copper, iron, zinc, etc. Therefore not safe in the enclosure or combined with any other supplement." cricket4u - 15 September 2013

Click: Exo Terra : Calcium / Calcium Powder Supplement (http://www.exo-terra.com/en/products/powder_calcium.php)

North America
Calcium carbonate, oyster shell flour, salt, calcium sulfate, potassium chloride, ferrous fumarate, magnesium oxide, zinc oxide, manganous oxide, copper sulfate.

Guaranteed Analysis

Moisture (max) 12.0%

Calcium (min) 35.0%
Calcium (max) 37.0%
Salt (min) 0.06%
Salt (max) 0.07%
Sulfur (min) 0.04%
Potassium (min) 0.04%
Iron (min) 240 ppm
Magnesium (min) 0.03%
Zinc (min) 9 ppm
Manganese (min) 5 ppm
Copper (min) 2 ppm

Calcium carbonate (35%), ground oyster shells, salt.
Contains EU permitted additives

EU Typical Analysis

Calcium 35.0%
Sodium 700 mg/kg
Potassium 400 mg/kg
Magnesium 300 mg/kg
Copper (as Copper sulphate) 2 mg/kg
Sulfur 400 mg/kg
Iron 240 mg/kg
Zinc 9 mg/kg
Manganese 5 mg/kg

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JBL Micro Calcium

Click: JBL Micro Calcium 100ml (http://www.aquariumline.com/catalog/micro-calcium-100gr-microfine-calcium-powder-sprinkling-over-food-insects-p-9033.html?language=en)


Product: JBL Micro Calcium 100gr - Microfine calcium powder for sprinkling over food insects


Optimum supply of calcium for all reptiles
Microfine powder form increases adherence to food insects
Fast absorption due to microfine particles with large surface
Pure calcium carbonate

Instructions for use

JBL Micro Calcium is a microfine ground calcium carbonate with exceptional physical and nutritional advantages for providing reptiles with vital calcium.

Due to the high electrostatic charge of JBL MicroCalcium, the powder adheres well to food insects of all kinds.

The microfine particles with a large surface area are rapidly and effectively adsorbed in the digestive tract of reptiles, even weakened ones, providing a reliable supply of vital calcium.


Put the insects /food in a suitable container (eg CrickBox JBL) and add a tablespoon dose of JBL MicroCalcium every 5 to 10 insects feed (depending on their size). Shake well to spread the feed evenly. Repeat the dose if needed.

Elizabeth Freer
01-12-2013, 07:55 AM
Click: Exo Terra Terrariums, Habitats | PetSolutions (http://www.petsolutions.com/C/Reptile-Habitats/I/Exo-Terra-Terrariums.aspx)

Exo Terra has a great tank for a leopard gecko which measures 36 inches long x 18 inches wide x 12 inches tall! This tank opens in the front. The price for the tank in the link is ~$200 as of January 2013.

Go with heat cables that fill half the ground. UTHs are just too small or not the right dimensions.

Elizabeth Freer
01-12-2013, 08:01 PM
Senior Leopard Geckos (10 yo & older)

Please share pictures and comments about any leopard gecko you have who is 10 years old and older. As husbandry improves we hope that more and more senior leos will be featured here.

Early 2016: Just recently I heard of a female leopard gecko in the EU who is now 32 years old! She was bred in her youth. :banana:

Click: http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/leopard-geckos-other-eublepharis/67194-senior-leopard-geckos-10-years-older.html
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Share your leopard geckos who are potentially giants or super giants

Click: http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/leopard-geckos-general-info-intros-pics/75470-post-your-big-leos.html
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Share the story of your first leo

Click: http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/leopard-geckos-general-info-intros-pics/75774-tell-story-your-first-leo.html :)

Elizabeth Freer
01-24-2013, 12:36 AM
Repashy Calcium Plus

Click: Repashy Superfoods :: RETAIL SALES :: By Product Name :: Calcium Plus :: Calcium Plus 4 oz BAG - Repashy Ventures - Distributor Center (http://www.store.repashy.com/calcium-plus-4-oz-bag.html)

Repashy RescueCal + The only calcium plus magnesium supplement on the market. Especially good for calcium crashing geckos. :)

Click: Products By Name (retail) :: RescueCal Plus :: RescueCal + 3 oz JAR - Repashy Ventures - Specialty Pet Products (http://www.store.repashy.com/rescuecal-3-oz-jar.html)

Repashy Bug Burger

Click: Repashy Superfoods :: RETAIL SALES :: By Product Name :: Bug Burger :: BUG BURGER 4 oz BAG - Repashy Ventures - Distributor Center (http://www.store.repashy.com/bug-burger-4-oz-bag.html)

Repashy Grub Pie - can be mixed as a paste

Elizabeth Freer
02-12-2013, 01:32 AM
Click: Zoo Med link

Updated info from Zoo Med on 19 Feb 2013:

-----Original Message-----
From: Ashley Rademacher
To: Elizabeth Freer
Sent: Tue, Feb 19, 2013 8:31 am
Subject: RE: ZM/ar 18 Feb 2013......

Hi Elizabeth,

"The Under Tank Heater should be stuck to a tank using the adhesive side of the heater. It is NOT meant to be removed and re-applied. If the heater is ever removed from a tank, is should be discarded and not used again. The process of peeling the heater off of the tank can cause damage to the wiring inside the heater which can lead to hot spots and further damage in the future. With this in mind, there should be no need to use any additional adhesive product to stick the heater to a tank. It is important to read and follow ALL of the instructions for application and use of this heater. If there are any questions, customer service at Zoo Med Labs should be contacted for assistance. Please e-mail zoomed@zoomed.com, view the FAQ’s on the product web page at Zoo Med Laboratories | #1 Reptile Products Worldwide -- Welcome to Zoo Med (http://www.zoomed.com), or call 805.542.9988 with any questions."

Best regards,
Ashley Rademacher
Animal Care and Education Coordinator
Zoo Med Labs, Inc.
Toll Free 888.496.6633

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Received this caution from Zoo Med on 11 Feb 2013:

"Aluminum electricians tape (has been) recommended to attach the heater to the tank – I would not suggest doing this.......It is very important to use the adhesive part of the heater to stick the heater to the tank. What this does is provide a bond with no air in between to allow the heat to be transferred through the glass and into the terrarium. Failure to stick the heater to the tank will likely cause the heater to overheat, shrink, and eventually short out. This end result may occur after the heater has become deformed and discolored. This heater relies on the bond to the glass to move heat away from the heater, so this step should not be overlooked or modified. Again, I can’t guarantee that it won’t work if used outside of the directions, but we can’t guarantee that it will either. You can forward this information along as well."

Best regards,
Ashley Rademacher
Animal Care and Education Coordinator
Zoo Med Labs, Inc.

Elizabeth Freer
02-12-2013, 12:44 PM

The Bean Farm's Flexwatt Info/Use Sheet
Copyright 2006  The Bean Farm, 32514 NE 77th, Carnation, WA. 98014. 425-861-7964, 425-333-4205 fax
beanfarm@beanfarm.com, - The Bean Farm (http://www.beanfarm.com)

Important!! Bean Farm LLC’s Flexwatt Disclaimer. Since the use of this product is beyond our control, there is no implied warranty of results. This product is furnished upon the condition that the user will determine its suitability, that the user assumes all risks whatsoever and that neither the seller nor the manufacturer shall be liable for any injury, loss or damage, direct or consequential, arising from use or inability to use the product.

The Flexwatt material being supplied is a heating product and a thermostat must be used.

This product should be used with a rheostat/dimmer intended for incandescent lights or a proportional thermostat.

WARNING! You manufacture this product yourself, there are no implied warranties and you incur all liability when using this product. The manufacturer states that a qualified electrician should install it. Use common sense when using this or any other electrical heat element.

17" is 10 watts per foot. Max length of heat strip is 48 panels or 50'. (17" is 12.5" per panel. 24 panels equals 25 feet)
11" is 20 watts per foot. Max length of heat strip is 24 panels or 25'. (11" is 12.5" per panel. 24 panels equals 25 feet)
4" is 8 watts per foot. Max length of heat strip is 60 feet.
3" is 10 watts per foot. Max length of heat strip is 48 feet.

Items that people have used to cover Flexwatt

Aluminum Foil Tape, Duct Tape, Glass, Ceramic Tile, Aluminum/Tin Sheet Metal, Kitchen Shelf (contact) paper.
You can router shelves for the heat tape to sit in. The heat tape can be tacked down with silicone. The heat tape in the routed shelf can have a piece of sheet metal or glass on top of the heat tape in the groove.
The key is to let the heat dissipate and to not be trapped. Do not nail or staple through heat tape!!!

Flexwatt for use in Cages

If using on shelf with shoeboxes or glass aquariums you can lay the tape on top of the shelf and cover it in a fashion listed above. These enclosures will not burn or melt if tape is regulated properly. We recommend a single pole Leviton dimmer for incandescent lighting or a Proportional Thermostat. See TBF Web Page
If using with a wooden cage it is recommended that you cut a slot and slide the tape inside the enclosure and cover it in a fashion listed above. Keep the electrical connections outside the cage. You can also run the tape on the vertical walls inside the cage if desired. We do not recommend running the heat tape underneath a wooden enclosure.

Controlling Flexwatt

600 Watt incandescent rotary on/off Dimmer. See TBF Web Page
Proportional Thermostat. See TBF Catalog

Important Things to Know about Flexwatt.

Keep tape under 95 degree F. This is a manufacturer’s recommendation. You must use a dimmer or a thermostat to achieve this; otherwise the tape will usually exceed this temperature.
When cutting tape: 3" & 4" - always cut through the clear stripe. 11" & 17" always cut on the cut line.
Always insulate the wired end with Flexwatt insulators (you can also fill them in with silicone when you are finished with the wiring). Insulate the unwired ends of the heat tape with electrical tape or 3M sealant tape. See the diagram on Flexwatt instruction sheet.
For those who are electrically inclined, as an alternative to using the metal connectors, you can solder a cord set directly to the heat tape.
To hook up a dimmer make sure you do so between the plug and the heat tape. When splicing in dimmer cut only one of the two wires that go to the tape. Do not cut both! After cutting one wire hook the dimmer up "in line". See diagram. If you do not understand this or ask a qualified person to help. Use an insulation box to house the dimmer and its connections.

For thermostats follow the manufacturers instructions.

Do not plug the heat tape in when it is rolled up or overlapping.
Flexwatt Heat Tape is sold by the foot. We sell clip sets, cord sets, dimmers and thermostats. Each Clip set makes one electrical connection. All Flexwatt items are sold separately.

Elizabeth Freer
02-16-2013, 02:07 AM
Kindly pay attention to the color of your gecko's urates. Healthy gecko urates are pure white.

2015 Mark D. Finke's research -- thanks to Susan K
Finke M. D. "Complete Nutrient Content of Four Species of Available Feeder Insects Fed Enhanced
Diets During Growth" Zoo Biol. 34:554–564, 2015

Click: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.1002/zoo.21246

2005 research
Finke MD, Dunham SU, Kwabi CA. 2005. Evaluation of four dry commercial gut loading products for improving the calcium content of crickets, Acheta domesticus. J Herpetol Med Surg 15:7-12

Funding for this research was supported by the Howard Hughes Medical Institute and the Gerald and Myra Dorros Chair in Life Sciences at Colby College

Click: Organic Value Recovery Solutions Studies - Nutrient Content of Insects (http://www.organicvaluerecovery.com/studies/studies_nutrient_content_of_insects.htm)

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Use as an insect and worm gut load/"food" no more than 48 hours prior to feeding insects and worms to your geckos.

When using T-Rex Calcium Plus Food for Crickets (or any other "formal" gutload including Mazuri High Calcium Gut Loading Diet), your multivitamin and/or calcium with vitamin D3 light dusting may need to be adjusted or eliminated!

T-Rex Calcium Plus Food for Crickets was independently tested in the following studies. Mazuri High Calcium Gut Loading Diet was not tested.

An excellent "formal" gut load: The following Mazuri High Calcium Gut Loading Diet is NOT intended to breed or raise insects or worms.

Click: Hi Calcium Gut Loading Diet # 5M38 - 1 kg (http://www.mazuri.com/mazurihi-cacricketdiet-1.aspx)

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T-REX Calcium Plus Food for Crickets contained sufficient calcium to meet the estimated requirements of insectivorous reptiles and significantly more calcium than those fed the other treatments.

Provide crickets with water (damp paper towel), but no fruits or vegetables since crickets will consume those preferentially over the calcium-enriched diet.

NONE of the other 5 "gutload" products/"treatments" tested increased the calcium content to suitable levels at all.

Addendum by cricket4u on 20 Aug 2013:
"Keep in mind that this contains a much higher amount of vitamin A and D3 than most commercial products. Therefore you really want to be careful with the multivitamin supplement. Just start a thread if you do notice any changes. As a matter of fact take pictures of the feces and urates. I'm just a little concerned with someone adding too much (multivitamin) supplementation on top.

Once you begin using this product keep an eye on the feces and the urates for any changes in color. Healthy urates are pure white.
If you notice increased drinking in your leos, reduce dusting. Increased drinking can occur with excessive supplementation."
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Online T-REX Calcium Plus Food for Crickets sources

Click: T-Rex Calcium Plus Gut Load Cricket Formula [TR 80500 - 80510] : Creativepet.com, Serving your critters online since 1996 (http://www.creativepet.com/index.php?main_page=product_info&products_id=39)
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Click: Nutritional Value of Commercially Raised Insects - Gecko Time - Gecko Time (http://www.geckotime.com/nutritional-value-of-commercially-raised-insects/)

Elizabeth Freer
02-18-2013, 06:29 AM
Leopard geckos depend upon heat mats (UTHs) for necessary belly heat in order to digest their food.

I highly recommend covering 1/2 the floor's footprint with your under tank heat mat. That will NOT be overkill

When choosing a heat mat for a gecko enclosure, go by actual dimensions as well as wattage. Heat mats ONLY basically heat the area where they are stuck, not much more. Even though heat rises, don't count on the mat to raise the ambient air temperatures much at all.

For the safety of your gecko and your home, always use a thermostat.

Several brands of inexpensive and proportional thermostats are listed at the beginning of my Leopard Gecko Care Sheet.
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Zoo Med's Repti-Therm Sizes:

Mini - 4" x 5" (1-5 Gallons)
Small - 6" x 8" (10-20 Gallons)
Medium - 8" x 12" (30-40 Gallons)
Large - 8" x 18" (50-60 Gallons)

Zoo Med's Repti-Therm heat mats incorporate special insulation with a vinyl cover to help direct heat into the cage and raise the ambient air temperature of your terrarium. They utilize solid state nichrome heating elements that produce a great deal of heat with wattages ranging from 6 to 22 watts (depending on size). A special glue adhesive allows for easy attachment to the bottom of your terrarium.

Zoo Med's Repti-Therm heat mats can only be used on glass aquariums. For plastic and acrylic cages check out IntelliTempTM Reptile Heat Mats.
Click: IntelliTemp Reptile Heat Mats for Less (http://www.bigappleherp.com/Intellitemp-Reptile-Heat-Mats?sc=2&category=14)

Zoo Med heat mats are NOT designed to be reused. When they are removed from the initial placement, wires can become damaged and could cause a fire hazard.

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Ultratherm heat mats come in 11 different sizes.
Ultratherm's 11 x 17 inch heat mats actually measure 9.5 x 17 inches. Fluker's 11 x 17 inch heat mat measures 11 x 17 inches.

Ultratherm's and Fluker's heat mats can be reused, because they're stuck to the enclosure with aluminum tape (Nashua tape).

For any Exo Terra enclosure, confirm that the Exo Terra actually measures 18 inches where you wish to stick the mat. Verify the mat's dimensions as well. :)

Elizabeth Freer
02-21-2013, 11:02 PM
"Hi there,

"This is another of the many slightly misconstrued pieces of information which has subsequently been passed around on the internet.

"While there is to truth in saying that Waxmoth larvae are high in fat relative to other species, they are also a very good source of vitamin C for example among other minerals and micro-nutrient content.

"It is my feeling that we would be doing our reptiles a disservice by deciding to remove the Waxworm from the diet entirely. I believe it has a valid place as part of a varied diet and can be offered in low numbers as often as weekly, particularly so to individuals who may require gaining of weight due to illness.

"Being soft bodied and evidently relished by Reptiles and Amphibians alike, if we regularly overfeed these larvae our pets are often intelligent enough to hold out for more of these rather than take less tasty prey we may then offer.

"Make no mistake however, this is keeper error and not anything to do with the Waxworm having addictive properties, which to clarify - it does not.

"Also worth noting is that dietary Fat should not be viewed with the same abhorrence as we might view adding more of the overabundant phosphorous to the captive diet. It does have value and it is worthy of inclusion, particularly for those of us who may go to great lengths to feed otherwise less fatty prey such as Silkworms and Crickets a great majority of the time.

"In short - You may feed these at any age, but ensure you do so sparingly and no more than once per week. This way you can include the species in the diet, offer your pet the enjoyment of a relished prey item and avoid any risks of their reluctance to take other prey thereafter.

"Hope that helped."

Elizabeth Freer
02-25-2013, 03:41 AM
July 2017
\/ See post 2 (Zux) on this thread:

Click: http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/leopard-geckos-food-and-feeding-issues-/83468-feed-leo-calcium.html

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Hilde ~ \/ This link to your post 5 from 2-18-2013 has the #post 387135 following the html.

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In that thread, post #5 in particular, Hilde recommends: "The only way to properly regulate vitamin and mineral intake, calcium in particular, is to only supply it via gutloading and dusting."

"Dusting is only secondary, the most important thing is to use an excellent 24/7 gutload."

Your corrections, Hilde, are much appreciated.

1 March 2013: After further discussion, the best approach is to feed your crickets and other feeders a very healthy diet 24/7. Gutloading for say 48 hours prior to feeding crickets to geckos can only partially increase the health of any feeder cricket, roach, or worm. Lightly dusting the feeders is also recommended.

2 March 2013:
Captured directly from Hilde's post #134, 27 Feb 2013, on "spoiled by crickets" thread in the crestie forum.

"If you feed the insects a decent diet full time, not just a day before feeding them off, you really improve the nutrients they'll provide - build a better body, not just fill the relatively short intestinal tract."

Added on 1 September 2013:
Calcium metabolism and metabolic bone disease (http://www.anapsid.org/mbd2.html)

Hypercalcemia (http://www.anapsid.org/hypercal.html)

02-25-2013, 09:06 AM

In that thread, post #5 in particular, Hilde recommends NOT to have a dish of pure calcium in a leo enclosure 24/7. She recommends only supplying the necessary supplements via dusting.

It actually says:
"The only way to properly regulate vitamin and mineral intake, calcium in particular, is to only supply it via gutloading and dusting."
Dusting is only secondary, the most important thing is to use the proper gutload.

Elizabeth Freer
03-04-2013, 05:32 AM
Please do not make the mistake of using this forum as an alternative to seeking proper medical treatment for your pet. Geckos Unlimited members have varying experience levels. Not all the advice that you get here is valid.

When posting questions on Geckos Unlimited please remember that if you fear your leopard gecko is sick, it is best to take him/her to a vet. Hands-on examination is necessary in order to conclusively diagnose problem(s).

The Basic Information highlights areas that tend to contribute most to many gecko problems. The Additional Information is useful as well. Please do your best to fill in as much as you can. High quality pictures are very helpful.

Basic Information
Species of lizard:
Gecko's name:

Enclosure dimensions (length x width x height):
Substrate provided:

What type and brand of thermometer (digital with probe, temperature gun, LCD strip, analog (circle), combo digital thermometer/hygrometer, stainless steel aquarium type, other):
What is the ground temperature right on the substrate under the warm dry hide:
What is the air temperature on the warm end about 4 inches up from the ground:
What is the air temperature on the cool end about 4 inches up from the ground:
What device(s) are used to maintain the temperature (Under Tank Heater, heat light, Ceramic Heat Emitter, Flexwatt heat tape, hot rock, other):

Insects and worms, list type:
Regular diet fed to the insects:
Regular diet fed to the worms:

How often do you feed your gecko?
Please list any supplements (with brand names) used. How are they given and how often?

If your gecko is sick, please describe the signs and how long your gecko has been showing these signs:

Additional Information

Gecko's total length:
Length of your reptile when you first acquired it:
Source (pet store, breeder, previous owner):
Captive bred or wild caught:

Number of hides:
Location of hides:
Is there a humidity hide? location?
Please describe any other furnishings:
List recent changes in the environment, if any:

Artificial lighting:
Incandescent: wattage:
Fluorescent: type: wattage:
OtherNatural daylight from room windows:
Photoperiod lighting:

Ventilation space for your UTH by elevating the tank above the shelf (some UTHs come with sticky feet for the tank corners):
Are you using a thermostat(s)?
Which hide does she/he spend most of her time?
Is the temperature decreased at night? by how much?

Is the humidity measured?
Humidity range:

Are the insects and worms formally “gutloaded” 1-2 days prior to feeding off to your gecko? If so with?
What calcium brand are you using? with D3, without or both?
Is the calcium in the tank with D3 or without?
Multivitamins (include brand name)?
Please list any recent additions/changes in the diet:

General Health
Is your gecko’s general activity level normal, decreased, or increased?
Is your gecko’s appetite normal, decreased, or increased?
Have you noticed any of the following?
Weight (loss or gain):
Discharge from the eyes or nose:
Increased breathing rate or effort:
Change in the droppings:
---white or yellowish:
---size of urates as compared to size of feces:
Abnormal skin color or shedding:
Parasites on the skin or in the feces:

Previous problems and/or illnesses

Other Critters in Same Cage or in Household
List other animals that are kept in the same cage:
Recent acquisitions (new pets within the past 6 months):
Are any of your other pets ill?

Elizabeth Freer
03-05-2013, 02:11 AM
Eublepharis macularius was first described by zoologist Edward Blyth in 1854. There's been enough peace time to do lots of research and study on this species and the related ones.

Click: http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/leopard-geckos-husbandry-housing-and-heating/81734-natural-history-biology-eublepharis-macularius.html

For a historical perspective from the first mention of such to the most recent info:

Click: Eublepharis macularius | The Reptile Database (http://reptile-database.reptarium.cz/species?genus=Eublepharis&species=macularius)

This one has reference links at the bottom, some with direct links to the source papers online.

Click: Leopard Geckos (Sauria: Eublepharidae) of the World - Eublepharis macularius (Blyth, 1854) (http://www.bayramgocmen.com/emacularius.html)

Elizabeth Freer
03-08-2013, 06:25 PM
Click: http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/gecko-care-sheets/55211-leopard-gecko-caresheet-eublepharis-macularius-demo-video-4-jan-2013-update-6.html#post389829
Click this second link to reach the complete Silkworm Guidelines I with tips and photos: Silkworm Guidelines I (http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/leopard-geckos-food-and-feeding-issues-/68584-silkworm-guidelines.html#post391395)

Recommend purchasing the silkworms separately from the food. The worms in the cup do not do as well if ordered online and packaged together.

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Click: http://www.mulberryfarms.com/Care-Raising-Tips-FAQ-12.html
Click: Your Online Silkworm Shoppe Silkworm Care (http://www.coastalsilkworms.com/silkworm_care)

"Silkworms must be kept in a warm, dry environment. For optimal growth keep your silkworm's 70-85F temperature rage. Upon arrival, open any containers that contain silkworms. Dump the Silkworms into the bottom of a plastic box, or one of our silkworm keepers. Our plastic silkworm keepers are reusable and easy to clean.

"If you ordered powdered mulberry food, prepare it upon arrival. Follow the directions on the food, or see cooking instructions below. Orders will be given food to eat during transit. You should feed all silkworms ASAP upon arrival. If you ordered pre-made mulberry food, it's "ready-to-feed". If you‘re using fresh mulberry leaves be sure to wash them before feeding. With the mulberry food, grate a thin layer over the top of the silkworms; we prefer the silkworm food grater for feeding out the silkworm food. Silkworms will immediately crawl up and start to feed on the food. With fresh mulberry leaves cover the silkworms with two layers of leaves.

"Silkworms should be fed daily. If you're looking for rapid growth, feed twice a day. If you're looking to slow growth down, feed once every other day. Silkworms eat a lot of food, be prepared to have on hand food for the worms you have coming, with the correct amount of silkworm food or mulberry leaves when in season.

"It's important to wash your hands before handling the silkworms and the mulberry food. Once you remove a silkworm from the colony do not place them back into the colony. This will increase your chances of introducing bacteria to your silkworm colony. We recommend you discarding any uneaten silkworms that are left in your animal's cage, if any! Over cleaning is a bad thing, and will lead to a high die off. We recommend keeping handling of the silkworms to a minimum to decrease your chances of a die off. For this reason we recommend you have a spare silkworm keeper to transfer the silkworms to when cleaning time comes. You should not clean out the silkworm keepers more then once a week, doing so will increase your chance of a high die off. In general we have found it best to keep all handling of the silkworms to a minimum at the same time keeping things clean."

Elizabeth Freer
03-09-2013, 06:57 AM
Comments from Dr. Burgess regarding the use of the Bug Slurry recipe:

He states that using Hill's A/D alone is sufficient.
He says that feeding a leopard gecko mealworms is like a steady diet of McDonald's French Fries, and should only be fed sparingly.
He says that baby food squash has too many carbohydrates for carnivorous reptiles like leopard geckos.
He recommends using Pretty Pets Aquatic Turtle Chow in the blender with the Hill's A/D.
He does not like the use of commercially formulated reptile supplements.
He recommends a diet with a 2:1 Ca/P ratio for complete reptile nutrition.
He does not recommend using Ensure because it is developed for humans.
Originally Posted by Dr. Burgess
geckos-- they ARE carnivores; (insectivores = carnivores, not herbivores). They simply subsist on (mostly) invertebrate prey rather than vertebrate, but that still qualifies as a high protein/low plant-fiber diet. Some larger geckos will eat pinky mice, fish, etc, if offered. But even if they don't, 'insectivore' is just a sub-group of 'carnivore'.

Originally Posted by Dr. Burgess
as far as supplement powders, it's not just that nutrient content may need to vary with species; it was also that the dose of ANY powder should vary with body size (even between baby and adult geckos, for instance) ... and this isn't accounted for with those products, making them impossible to dose with high accuracy. Again, it's another risk factor when using powders; no one really knows what the exact dose should be; overdosage is very common, though may take months to years to produce fatality in many cases. I have most my reptile patients completely off of all vitamin-mineral supplements, and if the diet is good, they have no nutrient problems at all. Just like in the wild.

Elizabeth Freer
03-10-2013, 12:10 AM
A leopard gecko's preferred body temperature (PBT) is 86*F/30*C.
Leopard geckos are really crepuscular, not nocturnal.
Leopard geckos do NOT have endolymphatic sacs for storing calcium.
Click: Interview with Karsten Griesshammer: Field Herping In Iran - Gecko Time - Gecko Time (http://www.geckotime.com/interview-with-karsten-griesshammer-field-herping-in-iran/)......shared by Conched/Matt 17 November 2014

***Cannibalism in Leopard Geckos---shared by Hilde 12 March 2013:
"Cannibalism in leopard geckos isn't unusual. Housing unequal sized geckos together could spell disaster, even if they're all well fed.

Leopard geckos are known to eat smaller lizards, maybe not often, but they will occasionally take advantage of an opportunity to change the menu a bit.

This link goes to a cached Google copy of a .PDF, you don't have to download it, just view it online.
If you're the least bit squeamish, don't look at the pictures on page #2, reading the text on page #1 will give you the full idea of what can happen."

Click: invalid link https://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&q=cache:2WP-kr_7uzEJ:www.herpetologynotes.seh-herpetology.org/Volume4_PDFs/Bonke_et_al_Herpetology_Notes_Volume4_pages211-212.pdf+natural+history+Eublepharis+geckos&hl=en&pid=bl&srcid=ADGEESggtkgUOZDfMS_wr2hIrjdkwkNsVQ4Gw47qnzmf VfR6AYNf4Mn7o2FZhy77hRVYZ011I0lMB6fZ9nDONKEBJBTVd4 JM0Uv-VVof5tuEc_RqAPufOc5mXGsX7XciVoCnWo6FBy6R&sig=AHIEtbRfaIYuPGifPrRIebPOrE75crIJ2Q

Elizabeth Freer
03-29-2013, 06:48 AM
+ UVB lighting links 4, 5, & 6 thanks to GU's Reptilelady -- July 2018

Product Review Part I: Zoo Med Reptisun 10.0 High Output UVB Lamp and 5.0 UVB Lamp (http://blogs.thatpetplace.com/thatreptileblog/2008/10/29/product-review-the-zoo-med-reptisun-100-high-output-uvb-lamp-and-50-uvb-lamp/#.WznauNJKjIU)
Product Review Part II: Zoo Med Reptisun 10.0 High Output UVB Lamp and 5.0 UVB Lamp (http://blogs.thatpetplace.com/thatreptileblog/2008/11/19/zoo-med-reptisun-100-high-output-uvb-lamp-and-50-uvb-lamp-product-review-part-ii/#.U7ZbX_ldWIJ)
---Distances from animals with and without screen top
Lighting Guide : Arcadia Reptile (http://www.arcadia-reptile.com/lighting-guide/)
Arcadia's Natural Sunlight Lamp -- 2% UVB -- T8 & T5 tubes (https://www.arcadiareptile.com/lighting/natural-sunlight-lamp/)
Arcadia's ShadeDweller ProT5 -- new 2018 (https://www.arcadiareptile.com/lighting/shadedweller-prot5/)
USA Source: UVB Light Bulbs @ Pangea (https://www.pangeareptile.com/store/light-heat-and-uvb/uvb-bulbs-florescent-mercury-vapor.html)
USA Source: http://www.lightyourreptiles.com/

Elizabeth Freer
03-30-2013, 12:07 PM
"If you have a screen lid, then you could use tin foil and cover up the mesh. Leave a hole for the dome CHE/light, and a hole for a moist rag. Place a piece tinfoil over the top of the rag. This will cause the evaporation to be drawn down into the enclosure. The tinfoil traps the humidity in the enclosure, and you don't have to worry about another type of material getting moldy. Also, use a larger water dish like Elizabeth suggested. I live in Colorado and it's been brutally dry. My house is at 5-10% humidity. This method works for me and keeps my humidity around 40%."


"I don't find it an issue, because I have my CHE set on a thermostat (83), and the CHE is heat directed. The glass is an excellent heat/cool conductor, so it doesn't trap any heat on the cool side. My cool side ambient air always stays at room temp (72). I cover the entire screen. The foil isn't airtight (so there is O2 access in the tank), but it does trap the evaporation from the rag and large water dish."

Elizabeth Freer
04-14-2013, 06:10 PM
Avoid cedar, pine, fir ?, and willow ? in reptile enclosures. Cedar fumes and oils are highly toxic to reptiles; pine fumes and oils are toxic as well!

Use of Cedar as a Substrate for Reptiles and Other Pets (http://www.anapsid.org/cedar.html)

Elizabeth Freer
04-26-2013, 08:09 PM
Update coming......

Tetrafauna's ReptoLife Plus vitamins

This one: Tetrafauna ReptoLife Plus - 1.77 oz Reptile Food Supplements?

It supplies vit.'s a, B1, B2, B6, B12, D3, E, C, zinc, manganese, copper, iodine, iron, calcium, phosphorus, and potassium.


TetraFauna's ReptoCal with D3

Click: Reptile Vitamins & Supplements: TetraFauna ReptoCal Reptile Supplement at Drs. Foster and Smith (http://www.drsfostersmith.com/product/prod_display.cfm?pcatid=6418&cmpid=07csegpl&ref=6111&subref=AA&CAWELAID=525353728&catargetid=1570185685&cadevice=c&cagpspn=pla)

This supplement contains more vitamins than just calcium and D3.

It has a poor vitamin A to D3 ratio and is not a complete multivitamin. The A is too high for the D3 amount. It will interfere with D3 and cause imbalances. The best ratio is 100:10:1 Vitamin A to D to E.

Elizabeth Freer
05-09-2013, 09:10 AM

Hydrofarm's Jump Start MTPRTC
Inkbird models: INK-306T & ITC-306T
Apollo ($20)
Zilla’s analog: 1,000 watt-3 outlets

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Jump Start MTPRTC directions

No variance information listed in these directions.

Click: http://www.hydrofarm.com/downloads/fc/MTPRTC_instr_18734.pdf

The Hydrofarm tech support person mentioned the temperature differential for the Jump Start MTPRTC thermostat. He said there will only be a 3% differential. For instance, if the thermostat's "set" temperature is 91 F, then it can be expected that the temperature will drop down no more than 3 degrees (3% of 91) to 88 F before cycling on. There is also a chance that after it shuts off at 91 F, the temperature as read at the probe could be a smidge higher than 91 F.

As mentioned, it is always important to verify the "set" temperature with a trusted thermometer or temperature gun.

My Pro Exotics PE-2 temperature gun (TempGun.com) has an accuracy of +/- 1.8 degrees F at room temperature.

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BAH 1000 vs Hydrofarm MTPRTC thermostats
"I have had no issue with either thermostat. The Hydrofarm is connected to the heat mat, which is its intended use and has done an excellent job of maintaining temps within 2 degrees above or below the setting. I set it at 91, and my ground temps have not varied beyond 89-93 since I started using it. I check my ground temps twice a day. Once when I get to school in the morning and once before I leave. The BAH is connected to the CHE and is set at 85 degrees. It seems to do a good job maintaining temps as well. My CHE is 100 watt, and it kicks on and off as needed.

"In tandem, they have worked well together. I have had no issues at all since I first set them. I literally set them to the correct temps, and have never had to touch them again."

Elizabeth Freer
05-12-2013, 06:31 PM
1. GU's Hilde

31315 31314 31313 31312

Click: http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/do-yourself-diy/64937-belly-heat-leopard-geckos-how-achieve-1-5-inch-thick-melamine.html#post364127

2. GU's mecoat's wooden vivarium with two inside heat mats. Maybe I'll make mecoat's thread a separate post.

36347 36348 36067 36068 36069

Thread #1, post #24 +, has mecoat's latest developments.

Scroll to post #24 for mecoat's updated wooden vivarium leopard gecko setup: http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/do-it-yourself-diy-/67820-own-vivarium-removable-floor-easy-cleaning-3.html
Click: http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/leopard-geckos-husbandry-housing-heating/69166-wooden-vivarium-help.html
Click: http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/leopard-geckos-general-info-intros-pics/77360-merry-christmas-meet-superdaff.html#post437948

3. GU's acpart: Here's how Aliza extends the usable space in her 20 gallon LONG vivariums. Her methods can easily be adapted for other sized enclosures.


"I use 4 pieces of PVC pipe as the "legs". They are 6" tall and come with a screw on part to give it a more stable "foot". (I think they're toilet flanges or something like that.) On top of that, I put two 12" x 12" tiles with a Zoomed mini UTH sandwiched between. I put a small tile at each corner between the two tiles to vent the UTH and then put a hide on top. The lay box on the ground level provides a way for them to climb up, but I've seen them get up there directly from the ground without the benefit of lay box."

Click for the "legs" of her platform: DBHL 1-1/2 in. x 6 in. Polypropylene Slip-Joint Extension Tube-HP9792 - The Home Depot (http://www.homedepot.com/p/DBHL-1-1-2-in-x-6-in-Polypropylene-Slip-Joint-Extension-Tube-HP9792/202078095?keyword=HP9792)

4. GU's JIMI: "I used ideas from this thread as well and adapted them to my own viv. It's working very well for me. I have a heat cable sandwiched between two tiles and ventilated the space between the two tiles using 4 rubber feet I had left over from another UTH. I elevated the tiles using 4 glass cups and put decorative pebbles inside to make them look nicer. It just took a little creativity. :)"

For JIMI's pictures click here.

Click: For 117 (& 60a) click: Placement of UTHs & Heat Cables Inside Melamine & Wooden Leo Enclosures (http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/gecko-care-sheets/55211-leopard-gecko-caresheet-eublepharis-macularius-demo-video-4-jan-2013-update-13.html#post452826)

Scroll below to post #3 for JIMI's heating for her leo Theseus.

Click: http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/leopard-geckos-husbandry-housing-and-heating/79712-heat-mat-wooden-viv.html?highlight=JIMI

Elizabeth Freer
05-20-2013, 04:34 AM
:banana: April 2016: Zux (Shane) has discovered that excellent nutrition cures some tremors!!!
Click: http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/leopard-geckos-health-and-diseases-/80883-question.html

Thanks to dbott67:


Elizabeth Freer
05-26-2013, 04:37 AM
/\ click to enlarge

Vet #1: The above scanned article was written by Douglas R. Mader, DVM.
Vet #2: Mark Burgess, DVM, has performed many lizard, gecko, and chameleon necropsies which determined that the cause of death was massive over-calcification of the soft tissues, so this isn't "just talk". Dr. Burgess once wrote a letter to the FDA in regards to Rep Cal's calcium with D3. It's from another forum so I'm unable to share it.

Elizabeth Freer
06-14-2013, 02:29 AM
cricket4u ~
"Due to the way air flows, there should be ventilation low in the cool end and higher in the warm end. Unfortunately blocking off some of the top (when there's only ventilation on top) to keep humidity increases poor air circulation. This is what I'm trying to explain:
*NEW CUSTOM CAGES AND STANDS* Beautiful Penn Plax Custom Reptile Terrariums in several colors! (http://mobile.kingsnake.com/read/new-custom-cages-and-stands-798275/)"

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index (http://www.centexreptilecages.com/)

How to make a reptile enclosure from wood | eHow (http://www.ehow.com/sitesearch.html?s=How+to+make+a+reptile+enclosure+ from+wood&skin=corporate&t=all)


Elizabeth Freer
06-29-2013, 11:02 PM
If they're too exposed, not enough furnishings, they may be afraid to chase the cricket.
If there's too much noise in the background, they may be afraid to chase the cricket.
If it's not warm enough, (aside from the warm hide) they may fail to chase the cricket.
If they're are not well hydrated, they will have poor feeding response, no energy to chase the cricket.
If the cricket is too large, they may feel intimidated by the cricket.
If the cricket is too small, they will have trouble seeing it, they won't chase it.
If the cricket is dusted and your substrate is paper towel, they may not see it.
If the gecko is overweight, they can become lazy and won't chase the cricket.

Elizabeth Freer
07-01-2013, 01:25 PM
Reptile Mites - Karingal Vet Hospital (http://www.karingalvet.com.au/Pet-Care/Reptiles-and-Amphibians/Reptile-Mites.asp). . . . . .??? Needs updating

Karingal Vet Hospital - serving the people of Frankston and the Mornington Peninsula area (http://www.karingalvet.com.au/)

Elizabeth Freer
07-12-2013, 11:11 PM
Is your leo really a female? IF she is approaching 1 year old, there's a good chance "gecko puberty" is setting in. That might cause her to stop eating.

[Norbert is actually female.]

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Click: My Gecko is Not Eating: Why and How to Fix it - Gecko Time - Gecko Time (http://www.geckotime.com/my-gecko-is-not-eating/) 24 Aug 2009

Click: "My Gecko Will Not Eat" Part 2 - Gecko Time - Gecko Time (http://www.geckotime.com/my-gecko-will-not-eat/) 18 May 2010

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"Leos are very greedy and normally eat right away if everything is set up properly. However, I know there are exceptions. Try switching the hides. (The Exo-Terra hide is more secure and may be the reason. If he's not utilizing the heat, chances are he may not eat.) If that does not work, lower the temp as Elizabeth suggested. You may want to cover the sides of the glass so that he will feel more secure."

Improper temps---air temps too hot or too cold
Improper humidity---too dry is most common
Stress---too much handling---lack of hides or not enough---cagemate bullying, cage too small, et cetera......
Repetitious Diet---variety is important
Spoiled food---upset stomach or simply a bad experience (common with superworms)
Food offered at the wrong time of day---lights on
Wrong size prey---too big or too small
Improper photoperiod
Prey not recognized---leo needs moving prey to elicit feeding response
Malfunctioning heating equipment---goes unnoticed---should be checked daily
UTH is too warm---unregulated---gecko avoids the warm spot, therefore will not eat (need thermostat)
Most common of all CHEAP thermometers => false temp readings
Too much calcium causing constipation and/or loss of appetite
Metabolic---calcium or vitamin deficiency
Pain from an injury or otherwise"
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Click GU kholtme's (Kyle's) sticky: http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/leopard-geckos-food-and-feeding-issues-/78187-gecko-eating.html

Elizabeth Freer
07-16-2013, 03:36 AM
Click for Hilde's thread: http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/leopard-geckos-general-info-intros-and-pics/68430-cannibalism-leopard-geckos.html#post390273

Click for pdf:

July 2017 thread: http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/leopard-geckos-health-and-diseases-/83308-help-leopard-gecko-cannabalism.html#post474036

Elizabeth Freer
07-16-2013, 05:50 AM
acpart (Aliza): "Enigma syndrome symptoms: circling (walking in a tight circle), stargazing (staring up with neck bent frequently), general clumsiness, falling over on the back when trying to walk."

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It's best NOT to breed your leo if he/she has the Enigma Syndrome.

"Understand that an enigma without symptoms showing still carries the genes for neurological disorder, so a perfectly fine looking enigma could very easily have enigma syndrome in their offspring.

"To add to that, many folks have thought their enigma was symptom free...until they bred their gecko. With added stress, their perfectly fine looking enigma started having enigma syndrome after being gravid. So while yours may look normal now, the symptoms can show up at any time.

"I know people don't like to hear no, so I'm not here saying not to breed your enigma. They are your pets and you should be responsible for them, I'm not gonna tell you what to do. But I am going to warn that your beautiful, normal acting engima leopard gecko may very well start acting bad once you start breeding her. And you may very well get offspring with enigma syndrome, some severe enough that you'll have to cull. So please do think about it before breeding an enigma. I know they are beautiful leopard geckos, I so wish they did not have neurological disorders because I'd LOVE to own them and breed them. But alas, I can't feel good about breeding geckos with genetic defects. And the thought about having to cull young life kills me."

Thanks for posting, Mardy (July 2013)

Elizabeth Freer
07-21-2013, 01:37 AM
"Minimum requirements for one leo alone are:

4x's as long as the whole gecko
3x's as wide
2x's as high

Each gecko should have at least 20% free walking space without having to climb over furniture.

A 40 gallon is not appropriate for 2 leos. 6 hides are recommended for 2 leos. That cuts down on floor space. Leos should never be forced to share hides. That has lead to poor thermoregulation and health problems in many geckos."

Elizabeth Freer
08-31-2013, 09:29 AM
"10 Gallon ReptiHabitat? Leopard Gecko Kit

These are the products included:
10 Gallon Terrarium (20"x10"x12") with sliding screen top.
ReptiSand® (Desert White, 10lb)
Combo Repti Rock Food and Water Dishes (small)
Analog Reptile Thermometer
Combo Mini Deep Dome Lamp Fixture
Day/Night Reptile Heat Bulbs (60w)
Beginner's Guide to Leopard Geckos
ReptiSafe® Water Conditioner (2.25 OZ)
Zoo Med's Repti Calcium™ (sample)
Zoo Med's ReptiVite™ (sample)
While kits seem like a good first buy, honestly they turn out not be. Here are my concerns with this kit:
1) Tank size - a 10 gallon is rather small. Contrary to what pet stores preach, a leopard gecko should not be housed in a 10 gallon. It is just too small. It will not establish the right temperatures and thermal gradient. It also doesn't provide nearly enough room for all hides needed and leg room. The minimum size you will need to provide your gecko is a 20 gallon LONG tank, which is 30 inches long.

2) Reptisand - leopard geckos honestly do not to well housed on sand. Babies in particular. They can be rather messy eaters and eat the sand while catching prey. Some will simply just eat the sand out of randomness at times. This sand can create impaction, which usually proves to be fatal. If you have your new pal's best interest at heart, ditch the sand and use tile, paper towels, etc.

3) Analog thermometer - these tend to read exceptionally wrong. They are honestly a piece of junk. You will need three thermometers, digital with probes are the best.

4) Heating/lighting system - while leopard geckos do benefit from warm air temps, your main concern with proper heating is to give them belly heat. To do this, you will need an under tank heater (UTH) connected to a thermostat. They also need a photoperiod, 10-12 hours of day, then the rest night. You can do this simply by providing light in the room by opening blinds on a window. However don't place the tank in front of the widow. Direct sun can kill your gecko, because it overheats his/her tank! Or you could use the daylight bulbs, however those tend to heat up hot so monitoring the temps is needed. If extra heat is needed, that's where your heat bulbs come in.

I know it's a lot we are telling you, however it is for your geckos well-being. When I first got my gecko, I did buy a kit. Many of us did, and we learned the hard way that there is a lot missing from them. It's cheaper and smarter to just buy everything you need separate and ditch the kit. Hope this helped :)."

Thanks to Muffins94 (Merissa Banta)
29 August 2013

Elizabeth Freer
09-11-2013, 02:07 AM
Click: http://www.wasatchexotic.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/01/Fecal_Exams_for_Reptiles.pdf

"A microscopic exam of the feces is recommended for all reptile patients every six months. Why?

All reptiles have some gastrointestinal parasites, even when captive bred and raised--the housing conditions at breeding and distributor facilities promote continual infection (high populations/crowding, young growing animals under stress, imperfect sanitation).

Parasites will multiply in the gut and environment of a healthy reptile, and will over time exceed the "carrying capacity" for the number of parasites that the animal can handle and still remain healthy. The animal will become dehydrated and nutritionally debilitated very quickly when this happens. The stress of treatment and dying parasites in the gut can overwhelm a patient, and especially the younger/smaller animals will frequently not survive treatment. This is why it is so crucial to monitor the parasite load, so that treatment can begin while the animal is strong enough to tolerate it.

Zoonotic potential: "zoonosis" = A disease that can be transmitted from animals to humans. While proper hygiene is critical when handling reptiles because of Salmonella, this goes for parasites as well. Increased fecal shedding of parasites by the pet means increased risk to the owner.

How to collect a sample?

A freshly passed stool sample is always preferable and can be collected from water as well.
Collect sample with feces portion (white portion is not feces, this is urate, a solid form of urine produced by birds and reptiles), place in a sealed plastic container (ziploc bag, film cannister, etc.), and place in refrigerator until it can be delivered to the clinic. The best samples are the freshest, they start to lose diagnostic value immediately, but especially after 24 hours.

If the sample is positive

We will contact you regarding treatment necessary.
You will need to completely clean and disinfect the reptile's housing, including discarding any items that are porous or permeable.
Follow the prescribed treatment instructions exactly. Missed or incomplete doses are as bad as none at all as they can result in drug resistance by any surviving parasites. Don't hesitate to ask us for help in administering difficult medication (pets are like kids, some are easy to medicate and some are not!).
Our whole reason for being here is to keep your special friends in the best health possible! possible!"

Elizabeth Freer
09-14-2013, 05:44 AM
"Impaction (hence the advice to remove sand, which, while certain kinds can be used, is strongly recommended against, especially for young geckos, because it poses a notorious impaction risk. Leos are clumsy hunters, and it is not unusual for them to wind up with a mouthful of substrate when hunting. As well, calcium sand is THE worst type of sand that can be used with any leopard geckos (and reptile species). Many keepers have even fought to have it banned for sale because of the risks associated with it. As for leos, they are known to lick calcium from a bowl as needed, so calcium sand is just temptation. In cases where sand can be used, a playsand/soil combination is recommended as one of the safest options). Impaction is not always obvious. You have to examine husbandry and care (low temperatures and dehydration will contribute to this), and it often requires a vet visit to positively identify. In some cases, say sand impaction, you can sometimes feel a hard lump in the lower abdomen. You can also check the lower abdomen for a very dark patch. However, in many cases, a physical exam will not yield results. X-rays are often required. Impaction doesn't occur overnight; it builds up in the system until it forms a blockage, and then you have a medical emergency on your hands.

Illness (e.g. parasites)


If this were me, I would be making a vet visit ASAP. In your descriptions, there are causes for concern. The advice provided is legitimate, and excellent for long-term care, but I've rarely seen a gecko in the condition yours is in who can be treated successfully at home without veterinary intervention. If any of the three situations I've mentioned above are the cause of the anorexia and depleted fat reserves, there will be no "getting her to eat". She needs treatment first and foremost, as all of these conditions have put her off eating, and for good reason. At best, force-feeding her will only exacerbate the problem.

Remember that anyone and their dog can be a breeder. Being one does not make them an "expert" in care. Having a gecko long-term "that has never had a problem" is not necessarily indicative of good care either. The best advice I can give, now that you've been provided with options, is do some research yourself so you can decide for yourself if your care is adequate."

6 September 2013

Elizabeth Freer
11-04-2013, 07:36 PM
The first ~6 feet of heat cables are NOT heated.

Kyle shares his experience adding heat cable to his leo Gaz's 40 gallon breeder enclosure (36 x 18 x 17 inches). He used 39 feet of heat cables. His instructions and pictures cover it all! :D

Click: http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/leopard-geckos-husbandry-housing-and-heating/79270-repti-heat-cable.html#post450928

Before with an 11 x 17 inch under tank heat mat

After with 39 feet of heat cable
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February 2017
The transition from warm side to cool side will be more gradual if the heat cables are configured like this red "cable" is.

Of course the red cables would be placed closer together and there would be more loops. This is the best a cell phone drawing could do.


In a 70*F room the 90*F temperature measured right on top of the substrate beneath the warm dry hide quickly plummets to 70*F (or to the room temperature) say 2 inches away from the heat mat towards the cool end.

Riverside Reptiles
11-05-2013, 02:52 PM
"I will share what I feel works best for 20 to 55 gallon tanks. Lighting from a distant window will not provide a proper photoperiod especially during the winter. A blue bulb or a CHE is very unnatural during the day. Heat and light should come from the same source. You can use both a day bulb (very low watt) just for lighting and a CHE for heating purposes next to each other. Or you can also use a bulb alone which serves both purposes. If used alone, I would recommend a bulb which is wider on the bottom and is coated with neodymium (helps reduce glare). The leos are sleeping during this time anyway. Here is an example:

65R30/FL/120V/NEODYMIUM E26 BASE, NEODYMIUM BULB, NEODYMIUM FLOODS, FULL SPECTRUM LIGHTING, FULL SPECTRUM BULBS, 65 WATT R30 NEODYMIUM FLOOD (http://www.bulbtown.com/65R30_FL_120V_NEODYMIUM_E26_BASE_p/104017.htm) You can find the same type at your local home improvement store such as Home Depot or Lowes.

For November the daylight hours should be provided as follows:

Pakistan Daylight Hours in November -- Timebie (http://www.timebie.com/sun/pakistan.php?q=11)

Just make sure to place it on a dimmer for some temp control or buy the perfect wattage if your room temperature remains stable."

Last edited by cricket4u; 4 Nov 2013 at 02:25 PM.

This information is sadly misinformative in several ways.

A CHE is NOT unnatural during the day AT ALL. Even on cloudy days in nature, heat comes from above as well as below. Heat coming from a source other than a light has absolutely no negative affect.

Also, a "dimmer switch" in general is a very poor choice (and to some degree actually dangerous) for heat control. A dimmer cannot monitor or change if the temps get too high or too low. This can result in severe overheating or under heating and often times death of the animal if a sudden temp change occurs in the room or if overheating or failure of the heat source occurs. This can even result in a fire. Only a thermostat will be effective in these situations where it is most vital. If you think that it can't happen to you, think again. It has happened time and again to herp keepers. It's important to keep safety in mind not just for your herps, but for yourself and your home as well.

Elizabeth Freer
11-05-2013, 09:37 PM
Leopard gecko - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leopard_gecko)

Avoid feeding leopard geckos fatty foods such as waxworms, butterworms, or pinky mice. Leos in captivity have fewer opportunities for exercise and really don't benefit from excess fat.

Pakistan Daylight Hours in November -- Timebie (http://www.timebie.com/sun/pakistan.php?q=11)

Climate of Pakistan - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Climate_of_Pakistan)

Pakistan Climate, Average Weather, Temperatures, Rainfall, Sunshine, Humidity, Graphs (http://www.pakistan.climatemps.com/)

Elizabeth Freer
11-10-2013, 06:03 PM
Ever wonder what a leo is up to while you sleep? Look no further.

Night "surveillance" videos
Leopard gecko has a drink at night - YouTube (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6bIRAfobjdo&feature=youtu.be)
Mushu Eats a Wax Worm - YouTube (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=geJML1mnASQ&feature=youtu.be)
Mushu Eats Another Wax Worm - YouTube (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8RYVg7prySo&feature=youtu.be)
Day mode video
Female Leopard Gecko - YouTube (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4UePgYmufE4)

Elizabeth Freer
11-12-2013, 04:46 AM
(click to enlarge)


A photoperiod is all about mimicking the lighting a particular reptile would experience in its natural environment. Short of having an expensive computer-controlled system that tweaks the lighting second-by-second, well minute-by-minute anyway, we can only approximate this goal.

In November 2013 to better meet the crepuscular needs of my leopard gecko, I added some photoperiod lighting. Since then my leo Cha has been out and about more with her dawn-to-dusk-like lighting.

Place a low wattage bulb (15 watt standard incandescent bulb) inside a 5.5 inch diameter dome fixture in the center of the screen top and right next to the CHE.
Dim this 15 watt bulb to half power with a rheostat, so the bulb is actually putting out 7.5 watts.
The light from my photoperiod bulb is somewhat shielded by a tall silk palm tree in the center of the enclosure.
Some natural daylight via distant windows and a sliding glass door further tweaks those methods.
If you wish, vary the ON time monthly according to a leos' native habitat. For example, 11 hours ON for February is good.
Click: Sunrise Sunset Daylight Hours of Pakistan -- Timebie (http://www.timebie.com/sun/pakistan.php)

Having an inadequate photoperiod may be why some leopard geckos go off food.

Elizabeth Freer
12-24-2013, 04:11 AM
I use and highly recommend Zoo Med's Repti Calcium with D3 + Zoo Med's ReptiVite multivitamins without D3 (2 separate containers).

Zoo Med ReptiVite multivitamins without D3 (Link: https://zoomed.com/reptivite-without-d3/)
Zoo Med ReptiVite multivitamins with D3

vitamin D3: 22,907 IU/kg, 10,390 IU/pound
vitamin A acetate (retinol): 220,264 IU/kg
Both Zoo Med ReptiVite multivitamins contain these amounts of calcium carbonate and phosphorus:

calcium carbonate: 25.9-29% (OR 24.9-28% ?)
phosphorus: 10.6%

I prefer Zoo Med ReptiVite multivitamins, because they're chiefly multivitamins with a good dose of precipitated calcium carbonate, but without added protein, et cetera.

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VetArk's Nutrobal all-in-one multivitamins (includes vitamin D3)

Nutrobal multivitamins contain a 46:1 ratio of calcium : phosphorus.

Lightly dust with Nutrobal at 1 feeding per week and with PLAIN calcium carbonate without vitamin D3 at another 1-2 feedings per week depending upon the age of your gecko.

Contents per gram:
200 mg calcium & 150 IU/gm (150,000 IU/kg) vitamin D3, plus vitamins A C E K B1 B2 B6 B12 folic, nicotinic & pantothenic acids, biotin choline niacin and minerals P Na Fe Co I Mn Zn Se Cu.

"Nutrobal has been the top selling calcium balancer supplement in Europe for years. Peter formulated it 25 years ago (1992)."

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Repashy's Calcium Plus all-in-one multivitamins (includes vitamin D3)

Click July 2017 thread recommending dosage frequency (scroll to the end): http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/leopard-geckos-health-and-diseases-/83432-baby-leopard-gecko-pink.html
Click: Repashy Calcium Plus (3 oz Jar) FREE SHIPPING - Calcium Plus Supplements | Josh's Frogs (http://www.joshsfrogs.com/repashy-calcium-plus-3-oz-jar.html)

"Our “All-in-One” Insect Dusting Powder provides essential vitamins, minerals and trace elements. Featuring both Retinol and Carotenoids as sources of Vitamin A.

"INFORMATION: Calcium Plus was developed to increase the nutritional value of insects as they are fed to all insectivores, transforming insects into a food item that has an optimal calcium/phosphorus ratio, as well as balanced levels of vitamins, minerals, and trace elements.

"INGREDIENTS: Calcium Carbonate, Dried Kelp, Cellulose (as carrier), Brewer’s Yeast, RoseHips, Calendula Flower, Marigold Flower Extract, Phaffia Rhodozyma Yeast, Paprika Extract, Spirulina Algae, Turmeric, Salt, Potassium Citrate, Magnesium Gluconate, Canthaxanthin, Calcium Propionate and Potassium Sorbate (as mold inhibitors), Natural Flavoring, Lecithin, Rosemary Extract and Mixed Tocopherols (as preservatives), Vitamins (Vitamin A Supplement, Vitamin D Supplement, Choline Chloride, Ascorbic Acid, Vitamin E Supplement, Niacin, Beta Carotene, Pantothenic Acid, Riboflavin, Pyridoxine Hydrochloride, Thiamine Mononitrate, Menadione Sodium Bisulfite Complex, Folic Acid, Biotin, Vitamin B-12 Supplement).

"GUARANTEED ANALYSIS: Crude Protein min. 2%, Crude Fat min. 0.2%, Crude Fat max. 0.6%, Crude Fiber max. 1%, Moisture max. 8%, Ash max. 35%, Calcium min. 17%, Calcium max. 20%, Phosphorus min. 0.6%, Vitamin E min. 2,000 IU/lb, Vitamin D min. 20,000 IU/lb, Vitamin A min. 200,000 IU/lb. Total Carotenoids min. 500 mg/lb.

"DIRECTIONS: Use with every insect feeding. Best applied by placing insects in a plastic bag or container with Calcium Plus and shake to lightly coat insects. Feed insects to your reptiles shortly thereafter. To maximize the nutritional value of insects, use this product with Repashy’s SuperLoad and Repashy’s HydroLoad. Refrigeration will extend product life."


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Comparisons: To convert IU/lb ------>IU/kg use:

"Repashy's Calcium Plus
Guaranteed Analysis: Crude Protein min. .2%, Crude Fat min. .2%, Crude Fiber max. 4%, Moisture max. 8%, Calcium min. 17%, Vitamin A min. 200,000 IU/lb, Vitamin D min. 20,000 IU/lb, Vitamin E min. 2,000 IU/lb."

"Repashy's Calcium Plus LoD
Guaranteed Analysis: Crude Protein min. .2%, Crude Fat min. .2%, Crude Fiber max. 4%, Moisture max. 8%, Calcium min. 17%, Vitamin A min. 80,000 IU/lb, Vitamin D min. 8,000 IU/lb, Vitamin E min. 800 IU/lb."

"Repashy's Calcium Plus HyD
Guaranteed Analysis: Crude Protein min. .2%, Crude Fat min. .2%, Crude Fiber max. 4%, Moisture max. 8%, Calcium min. 17%, Vitamin A min. 400,000 IU/lb, Vitamin D min. 40,000 IU/lb, Vitamin E min. 4,000 IU/lb."

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Repashy's Supervite as a multivitamin ??? October 2017

Repashy also produces SuperCal.

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Fluker's Reptile Vitamin with Beta Carotene -- all-in-one multivitamins contain Beta Carotene, but also vitamin A acetate

Click: https://www.chewy.com/flukers-reptile-vitamin-beta/dp/126187?utm_id=27615258&msclkid=9c655f042933188135300103dc1cdb22&utm_source=bing&utm_medium=cpc&utm_campaign=Shopping-Product%20Targets-Consumables&utm_term=1100005111899&utm_content=Fluker%27s

Guaranteed Analysis:

Beta Carotene 500,000 mcg (proformed vitamin A)
Vitamin A 50,000 IU/pound (preformed vitamin A acetate -- retinol)
Vitamin D3 10,000 IU/pound
Vitamin E 100 IU
Vitamin C 1,000mg
Folic Acid 15mg
Thiamine (B-1) 400mg
Riboflavin (B-2) 250mg
Niacin 1,500mg
Pyridoxine (B-6) 250mg
Vitamin B-12 1,750mcg
Biotin 200mcg
Pantothenic Acid 150mg
Vitamin K 2mg
Rutin 7.5mg
Para-Aminobenzoic Acid 500mg
Bioflavonoids 25,000mcg
Hesperidin ...25,000mcg


Calcium 19.8%
Phosphorus 9.9%
Iodine 18mg
Iron 1,750mg
Magnesium 45mg
Copper. 75mg
Zinc 150mg
Manganese 150mg
Potassium 750mg
Sulfur 500mg
Salt 600mg

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Fluker's Liquid vitamins or Fluker's Liquid calcium -- Do not use!
It's impossible to get the proper dosage using any liquid supplement. One keeper's leo actually spit out crickets when these supplements were used.

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Rep-Cal's Herptivite multivitamins (blue label). Rep-Cal's Herptivite multivitamins only contain pro-formed vitamin A (beta carotene) instead of pre-formed vitamin A acetate (retinol). So Vitamin A deficiency could result if the gecko does not get a little retinol from another source. The directions state that Herptivite should be mixed 1:1 with Rep-Cal's Calcium with D3.

Rep-Cal's Calcium with D3 (pink label) contains 400,000 IU/kg of D3! Rep-Cal's D3 Calcium contains 17x more D3 than does Zoo Med's D3 Repti Calcium!

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Exo Terra supplements
Exo Terra produces inferior supplements. Exo Terra multivitamins contain very little calcium carbonate per dose.

Exo Terra multivitamins only contain proformed vitamin A (beta carotene) instead of preformed vitamin A acetate (retinol). Research has shown that chameleons cannot metabolize beta carotene directly. They need a little vitamin A acetate to get things started.

Click: Exo Terra : Multi Vitamin / Multi Vitamin Powder Supplement (http://www.exo-terra.com/en/products/powder_multi_vitamin.php)

Exo Terra multivitamins

no vitamin A acetate
only beta carotene
fall short on vitamins
missing B12
lack much calcium

Exo Terra calcium + D3

made from oyster shell calcium instead of pure precipitated calcium carbonate
contains dextrose

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3/7/2018 -- Label has changed! Update coming......
1. Tetrafauna ReptoLife Plus multivitamins & minerals

vitamin D3 = 40,000 IU/kg
vitamin A = 400,000 IU/kg
calcium = 4.2% (min)
phosphorus = 0.6% (min)

2. Tetrafauna ReptoCal -- This is a multivitamin. It contains more than calcium + vitamin D3.

Click: https://www.petco.com/shop/en/petcostore/product/tetrafauna-reptocal-reptile-supplement

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R-Zilla Spray-on Multivitamins -- Do not use!

Click: Zilla - Where Reptiles Rule » Vitamin Supplement | Products (http://www.zilla-rules.com/products/vitamin-supplement.htm)

These contain vitamin A in the form of beta carotene. A gecko needs some vitamin A acetate (retinol) to get things rolling.
It's impossible to get the proper dosage using any liquid supplement.
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Sticky Tongue Farms Miner-All Indoor calcium/mineral supplement (contains vitamin D3)
vitamin D3: 4,400 IU/kg

Click for August 2017 thread about a young leo developing MBD while taking Sticky Tongue Farm's Miner-All: http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/leopard-geckos-health-and-diseases-/83632-gecko-calcium-deficiency-eating.html

Calcium Carbonate, Dextrose, Zinc Sulfate, Manganese Sulfate, Magnesium Oxide, D-Activated Animal Sterol (source of Vitamin D-3 Miner-All Indoor only), Iron Sulfate, Copper Sulfate, Ethyione Diamine Dihydriod ide,Cobalt Sulfate, Sodium Selenite, Iron Oxide, Natural Berry flavors

"TRACE ELEMENTS (from aquatic naturally grown aquatic vegetation):
Sulfur, Aluminum, Silicon, Copper, Bromine, Barium, Tellurium, Yttrium, Sodium, Lanthanum, Uranium, Neodymium, 44 Cerium, Titanium, Vanadium, Niobium, Dysporosium, Gadolinium, Erbium, Ytterbium, Germinium, Praseodymium, Samarium, Thallium, Scandium, Rubidium, Nickel, Holmium, Tin, Thorium, Europium, Terbium, Palladium, Gallium, Chromium, Lutecium, Thulium, Tungsten, Antimony, Cesium, Bismuth, Rhodium, Tantalum, Rhenium, Osmium, Iridium."

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National Geographic Multivitamins

Click: https://www.petsmart.com/reptile/vitamins-and-supplements/national-geographicandtrade-multivitamin-supplement-powder-5227781.html

Guaranteed Analysis: Min. Crude Protein 17.6%, Max. Moisture 4.0%, Max. Ash 2.0%, Min.Calcium 20.6%, Max. Calcium 24.7%, Min. Phosphorous 9.4%, Min. Iron 3,416.5 mg/kg, Min. Copper 180.0 mg/kg, Min. Manganese 485.0 mg/kg, Min. Zinc 500.0 mg/kg, Min. Iodine 40.0 mg/kg, Min. Vitamin A 23,129 IU/kg, Min. Vitamin D3 5,124 IU/kg, Min. Vitamin E 48.9 IU/kg, Min. Vitamin K3 (Menadione) .90 mg/kg, Min. Thiamine 231 mg, kg, Min. Riboflavin 136 mg/kg, Min. D-Pan Acid 89 mg/kg, Min. Niacin 167 mg/kg, Min. Pyridoxine 182 mg/kg, Min. Folic Acid 9 mg/kg, Min. Biotin .09 mg/kg, Min. Vitamin B12 .9 mg/kg, Min. Choline 907 mg/kg, Min. Ascorbic Acid 3331 mg/kg, Min. Inositol .002 mg/kg

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National Geographic Calcium + vitamin D3 -- :(

Click: National Geographic™ Calcium Supplement Powder | Health & Wellness | PetSmart (http://www.petsmart.com/reptile/health-wellness/national-geographic-trade-calcium-supplement-powder-zid36-26775/cat-36-catid-500007)

INGREDIENTS: Calcium Carbonate, Vitamin D3 Supplement

Guaranteed Analysis:

Max. Moisture 2.0%,
Min. Calcium 0.38%,
Min. Vit. D3 45,359 IU/kg

Riverside Reptiles
12-24-2013, 01:19 PM
Click: Exo Terra : Multi Vitamin / Multi Vitamin Powder Supplement (http://www.exo-terra.com/en/products/powder_multi_vitamin.php)

Exo Terra multivitamins contain beta carotene vs. preformed vitamin A. Chances are geckos cannot metabolize this form making her susceptible to Vitamin A deficiency. It also falls short on vitamins and minerals, such as missing vitamin B12.

I recommend switching to Zoo Med's Repti-Calcium with d3 and Zoo Med's Reptivite with D3 (2 separate bottles).

I would NOT use both products with added D3. If you're going to use a vitamin that contains D3, you really don't need it in your Calcium as well. I would use a pure calcium if you're using a vitamin that already supplements the D3. More is not necessarily better.

Elizabeth Freer
12-29-2013, 02:15 AM
29 July 2017: Current nutritional information regarding locusts (and other insects) hopefully coming soon. . . . . .

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Click 2001 research: http://jeb.biologists.org/content/jexbio/205/1/121.full.pdf
"Solitarious locusts showed a tendency to convert more
ingested carbohydrate to body lipid on the more balanced diets
than did gregarious nymphs.

"In contrast to protein, body lipid levels were not strongly

Click 2015 article: The Nutritional Value of Locusts | LIVESTRONG.COM (http://www.livestrong.com/article/549444-the-nutritional-value-of-locusts/)
"Researchers noted that the cholesterol content in locusts is high, about 286 milligrams per 100 grams, which is higher than that found in meat or poultry."

Consider ALL comments on this thread: http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/leopard-geckos-food-feeding-issues/72716-locusts-crickets.html

Elizabeth Freer
12-31-2013, 07:41 AM
Click: http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/pests-and-diseases/56581-beneficial-pests-natural-mite-solution-usa-uk-sources.html

Click: In the United Kingdom: Handy Tips - Defenders (http://www.defenders.co.uk/pest-solutions/biological-sciarid-fly-control.html)
Click: In Tennessee, USA: Biocontrol Network - Beneficial Insects, Mites and Organisms (http://www.biconet.com/biocontrol.html) is located in Tennessee, USA.

"Arbico Organics is a very quick turnaround. They ship extremely fast and has every shipping option available to you. New England Herpetoculture has some great springtails and isopod selections as well."

Click: ARBICO Organics Gardening Supplies and Biological Pest Control Products (http://www.arbico-organics.com/)

Elizabeth Freer
01-03-2014, 05:23 AM
Should anyone discover independently funded studies where this product has been tested, kindly let me know.

If you use this product, I would feed it to crickets just 24 hours prior to feeding the crickets off to geckos. I would NOT leave it in a gecko's cage 24/7. Leave other appropriate foods in the enclosure for stray crickets.


Click: Repashy Superfoods :: RETAIL SALES :: By Product Name :: SuperLoad :: SuperLoad 4 oz BAG - Repashy Ventures - Distributor Center (http://www.store.repashy.com/superload-4-oz-bag.html)

NET WEIGHT 5.3 OZ / 150 GR

Our super concentrated gutloading formula increases the nutritional value of feeder insects. Contains high levels of Calcium and other minerals as well as essential Trace Elements, Vitamins and Carotenoids.

INFORMATION: SuperLoad is a nutrient, mineral, protein, and vitamin rich feed, designed to increase the nutritional intake of insects before they are fed. SuperLoad is a NOT intended to be a complete insect diet for raising insects because of its high levels of calcium and vitamins. It should not be fed to insects for more than 48 hours.

INGREDIENTS: Alfalfa Leaf Powder, Pea Protein Isolate, Flax Meal, Brewer’s Yeast, Calcium Carbonate, RoseHips, Calendula Flower, Marigold Flower Extract, Phaffia Rhodozyma Yeast, Dried Kelp, Paprika Extract, Spirulina Algae, Turmeric, Salt, Potassium Citrate, Magnesium Gluconate, Canthaxanthin, Calcium Propionate and Potassium Sorbate (as mold inhibitors), Natural Flavoring, Lecithin, Rosemary Extract and Mixed Tocopherols (as preservatives), Vitamins (Vitamin A Supplement, Vitamin D Supplement, Choline Chloride, Ascorbic Acid, Vitamin E Supplement, Niacin, Beta Carotene, Pantothenic Acid, Riboflavin, Pyridoxine Hydrochloride, Thiamine Mononitrate, Menadione Sodium Bisulfite Complex, Folic Acid, Biotin, Vitamin B-12 Supplement).

GUARANTEED ANALYSIS: Crude Protein min. 20%, Crude Fat min. 5%, Crude Fat max. 8%, Crude Fiber max. 10%, Moisture max. 8%, Ash max. 15%, Calcium min. 8%, Calcium max. 10%, Phosphorus min. 0.6%, Vitamin E min. 1,000 IU/lb, Vitamin D min. 10,000 IU/lb, Vitamin A min. 100,000 IU/lb. Total Carotenoids min. 500 mg/lb.

DIRECTIONS: Offer to insects in a shallow dish 24 hours prior to being used as feed items. Also, make SuperLoad available in your animal enclosures, so that crickets that are not consumed immediately have an available food source. Hungry crickets can harm your animal, and will lose nutritional value without a continuous source of good nutrition. Refrigeration will extend product life.

Not for Human Consumption"

Elizabeth Freer
02-11-2014, 06:28 PM
Leopard Gecko Care

To view click "Leopard Gecko Setup" in the upper left corner, not the arrow:
Updates to video
Place no supplements in the enclosure at all.
Remove any background that they can climb. Then your leopard gecko will have more ground space to explore. Some leos will climb a background, but then fall off and could get hurt.
Click for humid hide in video: Amazon.com: Exo Terra Gecko Cave for Reptiles, Medium: Pet Supplies (http://www.amazon.com/Exo-Terra-Gecko-Reptiles-Medium/dp/B008YDHDD2/ref=sr_1_3?ie=UTF8&qid=1416443144&sr=8-3&keywords=exo+terra+cave)

34608 34609

1. ===> No plain calcium, calcium with D3, or multivitamins inside an enclosure <===

2. Best to buy stuff individually rather than getting a 10 gallon set up kit.

3. Avoid cedar, pine, fir ?, and willow ? in reptile enclosures. Cedar fumes and oils are highly toxic to reptiles; pine fumes and oils are toxic as well!

Use of Cedar as a Substrate for Reptiles and Other Pets (http://www.anapsid.org/cedar.html)

4. Quarantine Recommendations

Any new gecko should be quarantined for a minimum of 90 days prior to introducing her/him to the other geckos in the same cage. That gives adequate time to check for parasites, cryptosporidiosis, and the beginnings of coccidia plus. 3-6 months of quarantine are recommended if your new gecko is imported or wild caught.
The quarantine area should be in a separate room apart from your established geckos. Stringent sanitation methods MUST be followed!
5. Occupant(s) - Best to house leos alone. Leos do not benefit from companions or “friends”.
Never keep 2 males together. They will seriously fight!
Even 2 similarly sized females can fight.
6. Enclosure - Consider a 20 gallon LONG enclosure (30 inches long x 12 inches deep x 12 inch tall) a minimum "forever" home" for one 70 gram leo. That's 76 cm x 31 cm x 31 cm. Get the largest enclosure you can afford.

7. Heating - Your Under Tank Heat mat (UTH) should be 1/2 the length of the enclosure's ground and reach from side to side of the enclosure. One of two dry hides and the moist hide should sit right on top of the UTH.

Your leopard gecko will be more active if you provide an UTH for belly heat/digestion as well as an overhead dome with a Ceramic Heat Emitter to warm the air. Then your leo benefits from a "warm zone", not only a "warm spot". The UTH and the CHE both belong on the warm end of the tank. The UTH and the CHE each require separate thermostats since the settings will be different.

If you have a 10 gallon enclosure: 20 x 10.25 x 12 inches tall, use at least Zoo Med's 6 x 8 inch UTH or possibly even Zoo Med's 8 x 12 inch heat mat.
If you have a 20 gallon LONG: 30 x 12 x 12 inches tall, use an 11 x 17 inch UTH. The 11 x 17 inch will not compromise cool end temperatures. Another GU member does this and still gets 76*F for her cool end. UltraTherm heat mats are more reliable than Fluker's heat mats. Attach the heat mat underneath the enclosure -- between the glass and a thin styrofoam sheet. Elevate the enclosure off the stand with a couple small tiles at each corner to provide ventilation.
Use heat cables to customize heating when standard size UTHs don't cover the total width and half the length.

8. Substrate - Good choices: textured ceramic or slate tiles. Paper towels also work. Add a 4 x 4 inch tile or paper towel layers to the poop spot to facilitate clean up.

If you use tile, the backsides of tiles have ridges. Add a thin layer of well-washed play sand or calci-sand underneath the ridges to prevent "hot spots" on the tile's surface.
I do NOT recommend these particulate substrates: calci-sand, ground walnut shell, sand, Eco Earth's coco fiber, bark chips, aquarium gravel, peat moss, et cetera. The risk of impaction is simply not worth it.
After you have had successful experience caring for leos, there are other options. In that case ALL husbandry needs to be spot on!!!

9. Temperatures

Temperatures - A temperature gradient from warm to cool maintains your leo's health. Here's a temperature guide for all leopard geckos as measured with the probe of a digital thermometer or a temp gun (and controlled by a thermostat set at 91*F/32.8*C).

Place the thermostat's probe and a digital thermometer's probe together right on top of the substrate underneath the warm dry hide. If you use a UTH + a CHE you'll need 2 separate thermostats, because ground and air temperatures are substantially different.

Warm dry hide ground temperature: 88-92 F (31.1-33.3 C) inside a leo's warm dry hide.
Warm humid/moist hide: Also place the humid hide 100% on top of the heat mat. Keep temperatures similar to the warm dry hide.
Cool dry hide ground temperature: 70ish-75 F (21.1-23.9 C) Usually the cool end ground temperature matches the room temperature where the enclosure sits.
no greater than 82ish F (27.8ish C) air temperature - 4 inches (10 cm) above ground on the warm end
no greater than 75 F (23.9 C) air temperature - 4 inches (10 cm) above ground on the cool end
Leave the heat mat/UTH on 24/7. If you wish, during the night turn off overhead lighting/heating (~12 hours on and ~12 hours off) unless ambient room temperatures drop lower than 67ish*F (19.4*C).

10. Thermometers - Use a digital thermometer's probe to measure air temps and ground temperatures. Temperature guns are excellent for measuring surface temperatures. A stainless steel aquarium-type thermometer that has been verified can also be used.

11. Lighting (photoperiod lighting) - To better meet the crepuscular needs of leopard geckos
Place a low wattage bulb (15 watt standard incandescent bulb) dimmed to half power inside a 5.5 inch diameter fixture in the center of the screen top and right next to the CHE bulb. Reduce the light bulb's rays further by adding a tall silk palm tree underneath the bulb.
Vary the on-time monthly of both the CHE and the photoperiod bulb according to this Pakistan link. For example, 11 hours ON in February is good.
Click: Sunrise Sunset Daylight Hours of Pakistan -- Timebie (http://www.timebie.com/sun/pakistan.php)
12. UVB Lighting - UVB lighting is recommended for leopard geckos ONLY IF there are adequate opportunities for the leopard gecko to dodge some rays. If you have a 10 gallon equivalent enclosure (20 x 10 x 12 inches tall), wait until you upgrade your leo to a larger home before adding UVB! A 20 long enclosure (30 x 12 x 12 inches tall) is the suggested minimum when using UVB for leopard geckos. For leopard geckos, backup all UVB lighting with a powdered vitamin D3 supplement @ 1 feeding per month.

13. Thermostat - A thermostat controls your under tank heater and/or overhead Ceramic Heat Emitter. It provides your leopard gecko with stable and comfortable temperatures, saves $ on electricity, and lessens the chance of a house fire from accidental overheating. Tape the probe of a reliable digital thermometer to the thermostat's probe (offset a little) to verify the thermostat's setting. Place both probes underneath the warm dry hide right on top of the substrate.

Hydrofarm’s Jump Start MTPRTC thermostat is quite good. The Jump Start MTPRTC has a digital readout and a small metal probe.
Apollo thermostats have good ratings.
Inkbird’s digital thermostat is also good. It has sockets for two devices kept at the same temperature.
I-power thermostats

14. Hides - 3 hides are needed per leo: warm DRY, warm MOIST, cool DRY. Keeping one hide warm and moist 24/7 is very important! Both warm hides should sit on top of the UTH. The warmth from your UTH helps generate the required humidity. Leopard geckos use their warm moist hides for hydrating even when not shedding. :)

15. Supplements - My vet suggests dusting a "wee pinch" of Zoo Med's Reptivite multivitamins without vitamin D3 on the feeders @ ONLY 1 feeding per week. In addition also dust feeders with Zoo Med's Repti Calcium with vitamin D3 @ 1 other feeding per week. For "younger" leos add a 3rd dusting per week of Zoo Med's Repti Calcium withOUT D3 (plain calcium).

For leos 18 months old and older, and for leos 12 months old and older who are in good shape:
Monday---lightly dust most all the feeders with Zoo Med's Repti Calcium with D3
Thursday---lightly dust most all the feeders with Zoo Med's Reptivite multivitamins without D3
For leos 0 - 12 mo click: Weekly Feeding Schedule 124: Zoo Med's Supplements for leopard geckos 0-12 months old (http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/gecko-care-sheets/55211-leopard-gecko-caresheet-eublepharis-macularius-demo-video-4-jan-2013-update-13.html#post459052)

16. How much powdered vitamin D3 is enough? Vitamin D is fat soluble. It sticks around in a leo's body and only needs to be taken @ 1 feeding per week. Too much vitamin D3 and/or calcium is as bad as too little vitamin D3 and/or calcium. Rep-Cal’s Calcium with D3 contains 17x more D3 than does Zoo Med’s Repti Calcium with D3. :(

17. Diet

Like humans, geckos are what they eat. A huge factor in the husbandry of any gecko is to feed the feeders (crickets, worms, et cetera) a high quality diet 24/7. Nutritious feeder bodies transfer like nutrients to your geckos. "Light supplemental dusting" of these feeders equals a "sprinkling of powdered sugar upon a cake".
Vary the diet: crickets, roaches, hornworms, grasshoppers, silkworms, mealworm pupae, freshly molted mealworms, black soldier fly larvae (Phoenix, repti, calciworms), and locusts (smallest locusts possible).
Feed insects and worms 24/7 with a high quality dry diet like finely ground Zoo Med's Natural ADULT Bearded Dragon Food with high calcium/low phosphorus veggies on the side like collard greens.
OR If you live in the USA consider feeding your insects and worms Professional Reptiles' Pro Gutload dry diet. Pro Gutload dry diet makes a good bedding for mealworms and superworms.
If you decide to use chick starter feed for insects and worms, ONLY use non-medicated brands. Other brands contain diatomaceous earth! Check the chick starter feed's label for diatomaceous earth!!!

Albers' All Purpose Poultry Feed OR
Purina Layena Crumbles

18. Waxworms - There may be some benefits to feeding waxworms @ 1-2 feedings per MONTH! It's been reported that waxworms are high in vitamin C. Waxworms are also extremely high in fat. IF your leo needs to gain weight, feed additional healthy feeders. Phoenix worms (black soldier fly larvae), hornworms, and/or silkworms provide excellent variety. Those worms provide high quality nutrition as well as moisture.

19. Urates - Urates should be white, not yellow, and approximately 1/3 the size of the feces. A healthy feces is dark brown and about the size and shape of 2 tic tacs.

20. Additional Privacy for your Leo - Consider covering 3 sides of your leopard gecko's enclosure with something like brown paper bags or construction paper to provide privacy.

21. Helpful links

USDA Foods List (https://ndb.nal.usda.gov/ndb/search/list)

22. For 132 click: Why I use and highly recommend Zoo Med's Repti Calcium with D3 & Zoo Med's ReptiVite multivitamins without D3? (http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/gecko-care-sheets/55211-leopard-gecko-caresheet-eublepharis-macularius-demo-video-4-jan-2013-update-14.html#post469178)

:banana: Join Geckos Unlimited today for the inside scoop on leos and other geckos! :banana:

[Tony Perkins' Leopard Gecko Setup (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GmWmvT1d_TQ&feature=emb_title) video]

Elizabeth Freer
02-27-2014, 10:20 AM
"I am still a novice at this but when I first had Neo, one question that I had searched endlessly for the answer to was why my leo never came out of his hide - even during the evening. I hope this post will help others that are searching for that answer too.

The pet store that we purchased Neo from told us to handle Neo every day and my son did just that. We suspected Neo was uncomfortable with this, but were told to persevere as he would get used to being handled eventually. After three months he seemed to hide from us more and more which is when I turned to these forums. First my thanks goes to cricket4u who advised "no contact" approach. Second thanks to Elizabeth Freer and her frequent posts and the leo caresheet.

We stopped all handling, and made adjustments to his enclosure - including removing all of the sand. Better heating and controlled lighting was sorted and we checked temperatures daily, but I still had issues with crickets playing a pretty good game of hide and seek...which left me having to continually chase the crickets around the tank into Neo's pathway, which freaked him just as much. I was then guided to cutting the legs off the crickets so they were contained in one area. Not nice but Neo is much happier since doing this.

After a couple of weeks of good husbandry, temperatures, lighting, and no handling Neo is out and about most evenings, almost like clockwork from 8 pm. He has been happy for my hands to be in the tank doing odd bits of cleaning....and tonight he climbed onto my hand of his own free will. :yahoo:

So for any newbie worried that your leo is always hiding - just take your time. If Neo can overcome his fear anyone can!

There is so much useful info on this site that you can't go wrong. Leos are not cats/dogs, but just as beautiful to watch rather than handle."

Elizabeth Freer
03-16-2014, 03:08 AM
Click: Albers Animal Feeds - Albers® All Purpose Poultry and Water Fowl (http://www.albersfeed.com/poultry/poultry-feed/albers-all-purpose-poultry-and-water-fowl.aspx) 800-457-2804

Check Albers' Dealer Locator --- found within above link

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Albers® All Purpose Poultry and Water Fowl
An economical, complete ration for poultry and water fowl.

Sold in 5 pound bags at my feed store.
5052160-303 - 25 pounds
5052160-306 - 50 pounds

Product Features/Product Benefits
--Fortified with protein, vitamins and minerals. Promotes growth and production.
--An all purpose poultry feed. Ideal for chicks over 7 days, pullets, layers, ducks, geese, turkeys and game birds.
--A complete feed. Can be fed as the sole ration. For layers add grit and oyster shell.
--Non-medicated. Safe to feed to ducks.

Crude Protein
Min - 16.0 %
Min - 0.70 %
Min - 0.30 %
Crude Fat
Min - 2.5 %
Crude Fiber
Max - 6.5 %
Min - 0.6 %
Max - 1.1 %
Min - 0.7 %
Min - 0.2 %
Max - 0.7 %
Max - 0.2 %
Grain Products, Wheat Middlings, Corn Distillers Dried Grains, Canola Meal, Dehulled Soybean Meal, Malt Sprouts, Calcium Carbonate, Monocalcium Phosphate, Dicalcium Phosphate, Salt, Choline Chloride, L-Lysine, Methionine Supplement, Niacin Supplement, Calcium Pantothenate, Riboflavin Supplement, Biotin, Ferrous Sulfate, Manganous Oxide, Pyridoxine Hydrochloride, Zinc Sulfate, Menadione Dimethylpyrimidinol Bisulfite, Calcium Hydroxide, Thiamine, Zinc Oxide, Folic Acid, Copper Sulfate, Vitamin A Supplement, Vitamin B-12 Supplement, Ethylenediamine Dihydriodide, Vitamin E Supplement, Cobalt Carbonate, Vitamin D3 Supplement, Sodium Selenite.

Fill hoppers three-quarters full (this should be approximately a 24-hour supply) once a day, preferably in the evenings. This is a complete feed ration containing all known essential minerals and vitamins and a correct proportion of grain necessary for health, development and production of the birds. Only grit and oyster shell need to be provided.
Provide fresh, clean water and hard insoluble grit free choice at all times. Furnish five linear inches of feed hopper-space for each laying bowl. Start feeding oyster shell free choice two weeks before start of lay. This feed may be fed for starting chicks, growing pullets and laying hens, adult ducks, turkeys, geese and game birds.

Feed is perishable and should be stored in a clean, dry, well-ventilated area so it will remain fresh and palatable. DO NOT feed moldy or insect infested feed to animals as it may cause illness, performance loss or death.

Elizabeth Freer
04-22-2014, 04:14 AM
Houses her 3 mature leopard geckos separately in custom wooden enclosures
Vivarium size: 4.5 ft x 2 ft x 2 ft, (one vivarium larger?)
Heats those /\ enclosures with radiant heat panels
Uses a proportional thermostat to ensure accuracy
Recommends 4 foot long enclosures as the minimum length for providing UVB for leos
Provides UVB lighting via Zoo Med 18 inch Reptisun 5.0 tubes for natural vitamin D production
If you use UVB inappropriately your leo can receive too many UVB rays. Just the way we end up with sunburn from laying under the sun too long.
Uses Exo Terra light dimming units for the UVB that can be set for 10, 12, or 14 hours.
Click: Exo Terra : Light Cycle Unit / Electronic Dimming Terrarium Lamp Controller (http://www.exo-terra.com/en/products/light_cycle_unit.php)
Provides adequate hides and cover so that her leos can dodge the UVB rays
cricket4u uses this UVB meter: SolarMeter 6.2 UVB (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=idafvsKpQa8#t=64)
Another meter: Digital UV Index Radiometer (http://zoomed.com/db/products/EntryDetail.php?EntryID=1587&DatabaseID=2&SearchID=1&SearchContext=YTo1OntzOjg6IlNlYXJjaElEIjtzOjE6IjEi O3M6MTA6IkRhdGFiYXNlSUQiO3M6MToiMiI7czo4OiJLZXl3b3 JkcyI7czozOiJ1dmIiO3M6ODoiU2VhcmNoX3giO3M6MToiMCI7 czo4OiJTZWFyY2hfeSI7czoxOiIwIjt9)

Uses a custom cricket feed that is made by someone she knows. She does not have the recipe.
Uses T-Rex Calcium Plus Food for Crickets & Mazuri as her formal gutloads
Suggests that "too many carrots" also bind calcium.

cricket4u says that wooden enclosures provide these benefits:

Humidity control much easier: recommends 40-60% RH for the enclosure in general
Superior heat retention of wood
Increased security/privacy for leopard geckos

cricket4u suggests an enclosure somewhat like this, but with Zoo Med's 18 inch Reptisun 5.0 UVB tube fluorescent in an Exo Terra light dimming unit on the top. She might suggest a different ventilation system.


/\ 48 inches x 24 inches x 24 inches

Click: Reptile Lighting Information (http://www.reptilesmagazine.com/Reptile-Health/Habitats-Care/Reptile-Lighting-Information/)

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PS: GU's JIMI recently made an enclosure for her leo Theseus with almost the same specs. JIMI is buying the Exo Terra Light Cycle Unit-April 2015 :)

Click for JIMI's thread: http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/leopard-geckos-husbandry-housing-and-heating/78517-uvb-d3-supplementation-question-2.html

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4 June 2015: cricket4u ~

"The enclosure should be as big as possible but a tank measuring 3ft x 2ft x 2ft is the minimum size for 1-2 adults."

Click source: http://www.stanhope-vet.co.uk/wp-content/uploads/2015/02/Leopard-Gecko-Care-Sheet-STANHOPE.pdf

Elizabeth Freer
05-27-2014, 02:45 AM
(1) Sunlight and Vitamin D
Click: UV Lighting for Reptiles: Vitamin D synthesis in Ultraviolet Light (http://www.uvguide.co.uk/vitdpathway.htm)

(2) Click: Pet Reptiles Need Vitamin D and Calcium for Bone Health | ACES News :: College of ACES, University of Illinois (http://news.aces.illinois.edu/news/pet-reptiles-need-vitamin-d-and-calcium-bone-health)

For a separate discussion google: Understanding Calcium, UVB, and Vitamin D3 Synthesis in Lizards

Elizabeth Freer
05-27-2014, 05:35 AM
United States Department of Agriculture: Show Foods (http://ndb.nal.usda.gov/ndb/foods/show/2347?fg=&man=&lfacet=&format=&count=&max=25&offset=&sort=&qlookup=mangoes)
Ca:P ratios of different fruits and veggies: Guinea Lynx :: Ca:P Ratio Chart (http://www.guinealynx.info/diet_ratio.html)
More Ca:P ratios of different fruits: The Iguana Den - Iguana Diet - Fruit Cal:Phos Ratios (http://www.iguanaden.org/diet/calphosfruit.htm)
More Ca:P ratios of different veggies: The Iguana Den - Iguana Diet - Vegetable Cal:Phos Ratios (http://www.iguanaden.org/diet/calphosveg.htm)
Understanding Ca:P ratios: The Iguana Den - Iguana Diet - Understanding Calcium:Phosphorus Ratios (http://www.iguanaden.org/diet/calphos.htm)
Oxalic Acids & Calcium Binding: The Iguana Den - Iguana Diet - Oxalic Acids (http://www.iguanaden.org/diet/oxalic.htm)

Elizabeth Freer
05-28-2014, 06:29 AM
34610 34611

Crickets are excellent food for leopard geckos as long as the crickets are fed a healthy diet! Feed a variety of bugs and worms. Serve just a few waxworms only a couple times per month. If a leo needs to gain weight, feed more of the healthy stuff.

Please do not spray leopard geckos or their enclosure. Leopard geckos find spraying very stressful. Spraying the enclosure results in unnecessary humidity. Just keep a good warm moist hide as moist as possible 24/7.

Avoid cedar, pine, fir ?, and willow ? in reptile enclosures. Cedar fumes and oils are highly toxic to reptiles; pine fumes and oils are toxic as well!

Use of Cedar as a Substrate for Reptiles and Other Pets (http://www.anapsid.org/cedar.html)

Observe a 90 day quarantine prior to introducing ANY cagemates.

Leopard gecko requirements:
Occupant(s) Housing leos separately is best. :)

Never house 2 males together.
2 similarly sized females could also fight.

A 20 gallon LONG enclosure is a minimum "forever home" for a 70 gram adult: 30 x 12 x 12 inches. Consider a 20 long for your hatchling's first, and maybe forever, home. 20Ls can frequently be found on sale.
Warm end ground temperatures inside the warm dry hide and the moist hide = 88-92*F (31-33*C) as measured with the probe of a digital thermometer or a temp gun....cool end ground 70-75*F (21-24*C)
Belly heat from an under tank heat mat (UTH) 1/2 the area of the floor
Hydrofarm's Jump Start MTPRTC digital thermostat (Amazon)
Digital thermometer with a probe
Overhead heat too from a ceramic heat emitter (CHE)
3 hides: warm humid, warm dry, cool dry

Sample warm humid hides:
37836 37835 38229

Substrate: rough-textured ceramic or slate tiles about 3/8 inch thick or paper towels

If you use tile, the backsides of tiles have ridges. Add a thin layer of well-washed play sand or calci-sand underneath the ridges to prevent "hot spots" on the tile's surface.

Large water dish
Clear glass \/ \/ 8 ounce food dish with straight sides (Anchor brand)

For a young leo Walmart's clear glass tealight holder makes a perfect food dish! :)

Powdered supplements: Precipitated calcium carbonate with D3 + plain (without D3) multivitamins. For leopard geckos 12 mo and younger add plain (no D3) precipitated calcium carbonate @ a third feeding per week. I use and highly recommend Zoo Med's Repti Calcium with D3 + Zoo Med's Reptivite multivitamins without D3.

Check out Weekly Schedules 124, 125, & 126 on the Table of Contents.
If you're using proper UVB, please check out Weekly Schedules 155 & 156.

For 112 click: Updated Cricket Guidelines II -- June 2019 update (http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/gecko-care-sheets/55211-leopard-gecko-caresheet-eublepharis-macularius-demo-video-4-jan-2013-update-12.html#post448826)

For 132 click: Why I use and highly recommend Zoo Med's Repti Calcium with D3 & Zoo Med's ReptiVite multivitamins without D3? (http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/gecko-care-sheets/55211-leopard-gecko-caresheet-eublepharis-macularius-demo-video-4-jan-2013-update-14.html#post469178)

:banana: Join Geckos Unlimited today for the inside scoop on leos and other geckos! :banana:

Elizabeth Freer
05-31-2014, 03:31 AM
Shared by cricket4u

Click, then scroll to post 38: http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/pests-diseases/62890-help-sick-leopard-gecko-4.html

Posted by JIMI:
"At a reptile expo that I recently attended, I was checking out custom enclosures so I would tell them of the dimensions that I desired, which is 4'x2'x2'. Each time they would ask me what I was housing and when I told them it was for a leopard gecko they all gave me a crazy look and tried convincing me to purchase enclosures that were smaller than 20 gallon longs! I would ask them about under tank heating and again they looked at me like I was crazy. I had a feeling that they felt that I am a horrible owner. I can imagine the reactions I would have gotten If I had mentioned that I was interested in installing UV lighting. :lol: It's amazing how people are so against putting leos in larger enclosures."

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Assessing Reptile Welfare Using Behavioural Criteria
Journal of the British Veterinary Association......March 2013

Spatial considerations
"Many reptiles are mistakenly and inhumanely kept in small cages due to erroneous advice handed down from one pet trader, hobbyist or ill-informed keeper to another. Common false understandings are that many reptiles ‘feel safer’ in small environments and that they are naturally ‘sedentary and don’t need space'. This rationale may suit the convenience of those seeking to promote reptiles as a ‘cage pet’, but it is scientifically and ethically wrong.

"While reptiles, like other animals, require shelter to which they can voluntarily withdraw, the key elements are that the animal seeks a ‘hiding place’ when it senses the need for it and it does this voluntarily. Imposing a confined space on an animal is biologically equivalent to trapping it.

"Home range studies of reptiles have frequently shown them to be highly active and that they travel either within local ranges of several hundreds of square meters or indefinite ranges measured in hundreds or thousands of kilometres. For example, arboreal monitors have been documented moving daily ranges greater than 186 m, home ranges for some skink lizards are 1 ha, box turtles 40 ha, indigo snakes 158 ha, and for sea turtles, travel can be measured in the thousands of kilometres.

"Small species and juveniles commonly utilize as much, and sometimes more, total space than large species and adults. Smaller forms are often insectivorous and these may need to feed more frequently than larger forms and also require a great deal of activity to track and catch their highly active prey.

"Regardless of these differences, all reptiles are active, including species such as pythons that are popularly, but wrongly, perceived as sedentary. Some species, in particular large carnivores such as monitor lizards and pythons, may adopt brief sedentary periods following consumption of large meals, but this is a transient phase and not one that should be used to judge an animal's general activity pattern or spatial needs."

Elizabeth Freer
06-08-2014, 06:19 AM
Contributed by JIMI -- June 2014:

Click: Gout in Reptiles: Causes, Signs, Diagnosis, Treatment, and Prevention (http://www.peteducation.com/article.cfm?c=17+1796&aid=2496)

Reptile Gout: Causes, Signs, Diagnosis, Treatment, and Prevention
Veterinary & Aquatic Services Department, Drs. Foster & Smith

Gout is a common disease among reptiles, including snakes, iguanas, monitor lizards, and tortoises.

What causes gout?

Uric acid is one of the breakdown products of dietary protein in certain animals, including some reptiles. The uric acid is removed from the blood by the kidneys and excreted in the urine. Gout can occur if the level of uric acid in the blood exceeds the ability of the kidneys to remove it. The uric acid may crystallize in the joints which is termed "articular gout". It may also be deposited in various organs ("visceral gout"), such as the liver, spleen, pericardial sac (the covering of the heart), kidneys, and lungs, and mucous membranes, such as the mouth. When the uric acid crystallizes in tissues it forms small, white nodules called "tophi."

There are two types of gout. In primary gout, the high uric acid level is a result of an abnormal breakdown of protein. Primary gout is thought to be hereditary in humans. In secondary gout, the high level is due to the inability of the kidneys to adequately excrete the uric acid. This can be caused by medications, chronic diseases, kidney disease, starvation, improper diet, decreased water intake or chronic dehydration, and other environmental factors which affect the kidneys' ability to eliminate uric acid. A common cause of gout is feeding animal proteins (e.g.; dog or cat food) to vegetarian reptiles, whose digestive systems cannot properly digest and metabolize animal-based protein. In these cases, large amounts of uric acid are produced and the kidneys cannot adequately eliminate them.

What are the signs of gout and how is it diagnosed?

Tophi may be visible on the inside of the mouth in animals with gout. Joints may be enlarged, stiff, and painful. If there is renal failure or there are large deposits of uric acid in the kidneys, they may be enlarged.

After examining the animal and obtaining a thorough history of the diet; availability of water; the temperature and humidity of the cage as well as other environmental factors; and previous health problems and treatments, the veterinarian will suspect gout. Radiographs help to substantiate the diagnosis; the identification of uric acid crystals in joint fluid, biopsies, or tophi confirms it.

How is gout treated?

Any underlying dietary or environmental cause will need to be remedied. Diets such as Hill's Canine u/d, which are low in those proteins which are metabolized into uric acid, may be used in carnivorous reptiles. Proper hydration is necessary and fluids may need to be administered. If arthritis from gout is severe, it is possible to surgically remove the uric acid crystals from the joint. Unfortunately, severe and sometimes irreversible damage to the joint may have already occurred. Medications such as allopurinol, probenecid, sulfinpyrazone, or colchicine may be used, but the exact dosage and safety of these drugs in reptiles have not been determined. Most reptiles will need to be treated for life or the condition will quickly reappear if therapy is discontinued.

Gout can be complicated by a secondary bacterial infection in the joints. If this occurs, antibiotics are added to the treatment regimen.

References and Further Reading
Association of Reptilian and Amphibian Veterinarians. Treatment of Articular Gout in a Mediterranean Pond Turtle, Mauremys leprosa. Association of Reptilian and Amphibian Veterinarians 7[4]:5-7 Winter 1997.

Donoghue, S; McKeown, S. Nutrition of captive reptiles. In Jenkins, JR. (ed) The Veterinary Clinics of North America: Exotic Animal Practice. W.B. Saunders Co. Philadelphia, PA; January 1999.

Highfield, A.C. Practical Encyclopedia of Keeping and Breeding Tortoises and Freshwater Turtles. Carapace Press, London; 1996.

Mader, D.R. Gout. Mader, Douglas R. (ed.) Reptile Medicine and Surgery. W.B. Saunders Co. Philadelphia, PA; 1996.

Raiti, P. Snakes. In Meredith, A; Redrobe, S. (eds.) British Small Animal Veterinary Association (BSAVA) Manual of Exotic Pets, Fourth Edition. BSAVA. Quedgeley, Gloucester, England; 2002.

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Contributed by Elizabeth Freer -- June 2014:

Click: The Chameleon Journals (http://web.archive.org/web/20060502074415/www.chameleonjournals.com/vet/index.php?show=8.Gout.Basics.html)

Gout Basics
by Kenneth Lopez, DVM

"I will try to give the Readers Digest version as this is a complex topic. Proteins (animal or vegetable) from the diet are degraded to amino acids. Purine and pyrimidine bases are synthesized from the amino acids, primarily by the liver. Let's forget about the pyrimidines and focus on the purines. Purines are degraded (in most reptiles) to the end product, uric acid, which is cleared from the blood by the kidneys. Gout comes in a few different forms: articular (in the joints), peri-articular (around the joints), and visceral (in the gut). It can also be classified as primary and secondary. Primary gout, such as humans get, comes from hyperuricemia (i.e., excessive uric acid in the blood) due to dietary factors or to a defect in amino acid metabolism. Secondary gout comes from hyperuricemia due to a problem in the excretion of uric acid such as renal disease. When this happens, urate crystal deposits can form in many places, hence, articular, peri-articular, and visceral forms. The deposits are called tophi and the disease is considered tophaceous gout. Some animals, such as Dalmations may have genetic reasons for the formation of uric acid uroliths ("stones") and must take Allopurinol to inhibit the enzyme, xanthine oxidase, which is responsible for converting oxypurines to uric acid. Iguanas, which should be vegetarians, get gout when fed animal protiens which are high in purines. Chameleons usually get hyperuricemia due to dehydration or renal disfunction, a secondary gout. I see a lot of articular gout in chameleons. On X-rays this may appear similar to a bad arthritis and visually as swollen joints, usually on the extremities. For the sake of brevity, this is a very simplified version of a complex process."

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Contributed by Sg612 -- May 2019:
"Your vet should have discussed a plan. In particular, hydration and pain management. Don’t hesitate to show her this article."

Click: https://veterinarypartner.vin.com/default.aspx?pid=19239&catId=102919&id=8049747

Elizabeth Freer
06-09-2014, 09:04 PM
FYI: LIVE coverage of the actual operation


With much appreciation to Sabrina Crawford for her FB share -- 24 April 2015

Elizabeth Freer
06-22-2014, 04:47 AM
Click: Information on Vitamin D3, Parathyroid Hormone, Calcitonin and Calcium. (http://www.uvma.org/chameleon/vitamind3.htm)

Vitamin D3 and Calcium
by Kenneth Lopez, DVM
"Here are the players:
1. Calcium
2. Vitamin D
3. Parathyroid Hormone
4. Calcitonin

Calcium: Calcium is very poorly absorbed through the intestinal mucosa, as are most bivalent cations. When there is excess calcium in the diet much of it binds with phosphate and forms insoluble compounds which are excreted in the feces. Everyone should be aware of the need for calcium in bone formation and muscular contraction, reproduction, etc. (life in general). Too little Calcium causes, among other things, tremors, tetany, and death. **Too much Calcium causes muscles to become sluggish and weak. It has cardiac effects as well as causing obstipation and lack of appetite due to decreased contractility of the intestinal walls.

Vitamin D: Vit D has the job of increasing calcium absorption from the intestinal tract. It also affects both bone deposition AND bone reabsorption. Vitamin D3 is NOT the active substance for these effects. Vit D3 (Cholecalciferol) is formed in the skin by the ultraviolet rays from sunlight. Cholecalciferol is converted by the liver to 1,25 Hydroxycholecalciferol, which in turn is changed through reactions in the kidney to the ACTIVE form; 1, 25 Dihydroxycholecalciferol. **The creation of Hydroxycholecalciferol is limited by a feedback loop, which inhibits the transformation from D3 to Hydroxycholecalciferol. **Vitamin D3 is stored for a long time in the liver, while Hydroxyholecalciferol lasts only a short while. *Now the kidneys take effect and change Hydroxy to Dihydroxycholecalciferol. Remember this when we discuss renal damage. Without the kidneys there are NO active vitamin D effects that can occur. Dihydroxycholecalciferol has its effects upon intestinal epithelium and calcium absorption primarily through the creation of a calcium-binding protein. ** Calcium-binding protein remains in cells for several weeks after the 1,25 Dihyroxycholecalciferol has been eliminated from the body.

Parathyroid Hormone: This hormone causes rapid absorption of calcium salts from the bones in response to decreased calcium in the blood. It also causes phosphate to be lost in the kidneys. Parathyroid Hormone takes many hours to take effect and has a long-term effect.

Calcitonin: Calcitonin DECREASES blood calcium ion concentration. It works very quickly, within minutes. Consider it the opposite of Parathyroid Hormone. **Calcitonin has its greatest effect upon young, rapidly growing animals. **An increase in plasma calcium concentration of about 20% causes immediate two-to-three fold increase in the rate of secretion of Calcitonin.

Back in the 70's and 80's it was very common to see reptiles come in with curved spines, multiple fractures, muscle tremors. Supplements were not commonly used and deaths were common and reproduction of many species was limited. This disease, Metabolic Bone Disease (secondary nutritional hyperparathyroidism) was one of the most common problems seen. Once MBD became a household word and supplements such as Miner-all and RepCal became available MBD, thankfully, became less common. Now we are seeing another distressing trend. I commonly have chams brought in with obstipation, decreased appetites, wasting away, and severe dehydration despite vigilant misting or watering. A common finding in the husbandry goes as follows: " I take great care of her. I water her frequently. I dust her crickets every-other day with Calcium Powder with Vit D3 alternated on off days with a multivitamin powder. When she started becoming depressed I started giving her Neocalglucon and later my vet gave me Baytril". If you only knew how common this scenario is from my perspective it would frighten you.

My question is this: Are we over-supplementing our chams? Here is my reasoning behind the question. 1. Excess calcium causes muscles to become sluggish and weak. It causes decreased appetite and causes obstipation (intractable constipation) due to decreased contractility of the intestinal walls. 2. Excess Vitamin D actually causes ABSORPTION of bone. It actually mimics hyperparathyroidism. 3. Vitamin D causes calcification of bone. Excess Vitamin D causes inappropriate mineralization of organs such as the kidney or soft tissue. Excess Vit D3 and Calcium has been implicated in mineralization of large blood vessels, causing cardiac disease. 4. If we fry the kidneys with excess Vitamin D we cannot get the active form, 1,25 Dihydroxycholecalciferol. Of course, there are many other problems that come along with fried kidneys. 5. The body will only allow so much Hydroxycholecaliferol before the conversion of Vit D3 in the liver is stopped. What happens to the excess Vitamin D3? It is stored in the liver doing no good but potentially causing problems in the future. 6. If the Calcium-binding proteins remain in the cells for weeks after the 1,25 Dihydroxycholecalciferol is gone, why are we redosing two or three times a week? 7. When we over supplement our baby chams with Vit D and Calcium, Calcitonin is secreted which has the job of DECREASING serum calcium. This effect is much more important in young animals. Their young, growing bones are more easily affected by subtle changes in nutritional balances.

SUMMARY: I get way too many consults and patients with signs I feel are suggestive of chronic over-supplementation. It is another case of "A little is good, so a lot must be better" It is not known how much supplementation, if any, is needed for different species. In monkey medicine, for example, Old World monkeys do not need Vit D3 supplements at all while New World monkeys NEED Vit D3 added to their diets. Can we meet their needs better by better gut-loading of our insects and by using a variety of insects in conjunction with proper lighting? Then we can supplement with much less frequency. Please see Susan's Cricket food recipe. I think is well balanced and I have a few of her babies which are remarkable in their health.

The information provided on this site is for your consideration only. You should contact your veterinarian for specific questions concerning your chameleons."

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Click: Information on Vitamin A, Benefits of Vitamin A. (http://www.uvma.org/chameleon/vitaminA.htm)

Vitamin A
by Kenneth Lopez, DVM

"Vitamin A and it's effects are more complex and less understood than vitamin D. I am simplifying the subject for a few reasons. One is to avoid losing readers due to 3-block-long words, another is because there are a few great references that spell everything out, and third, because I don't want to work that hard right now. I know parts will be in direct disagreement with other veterinarians points of view. These are only my thoughts, do with them what you will.

The players: Carotenoids: Provitamins that occur with chlorophyll in all green plants Retinol: The form vitamin A takes in animal tissues. Usually changed from carotenoids to retinol by cells in the intestinal mucosa and/or the liver. Stored (as esters) in liver. Chylomicrons: Lets call them "escorts" for simplicity. They grab the newly formed retinol with one main mission in life, to get the retinol to the liver. Vitamin D3 (see previous post, someone should still have it) Vitamin E

So, here are some more complexities. How many times have you read posts on these lists that go something like this: "I alternate Calcium plus D3 on one day with Multi-Vitamin Powder every other day" The same people often later ask "What causes swelling under the chin of my cham?"

With vitamin A, which can potentially store in the liver for up to 6 months, and vitamin D, which can store for a couple months in the liver as well, we should be seeing big problems, right? If you remember from the vitamin D post, excessive D3 is associated with calcium mobilization from the bones as well. Working together (A & D) the cham should look like Gary Larsons rubber chicken ranch, right? Actually, vitamin A and vitamin D are antagonistic (incompletely)to each other. While both may be at toxic levels, the effects are not as evident due to their interaction. The funny thing is, once signs of MBD show up, people often start shoveling in the calcium and D3, in an ALREADY hypercalcemic cham! This is kind of like hating how tired Valium makes you so taking an amphetamine with it. Some species are EXTREMELY sensitive to vitamin A. Some (few) can take a boat-load without signs of problems.

My opinion (for what its worth) is preformed vitamin A is a medication used to treat severe cases of hypovitaminosis A and symptoms suggestive of such. It is too dangerous to use as a supplement. I use it carefully to elevate vitamin A levels. I sometimes use it to treat vitamin D toxicosis. I also use it when there is liver dysfunction. Bile salts are required for the uptake of retinol into the liver. I also use vitamin D to treat vitamin A toxicosis (along with vitamin E which seems to help).

Chams do not have much opportunity to zap preformed vitamin A in the wild. There is probably some small amount in most insects, especially king mealworms that pass through the liver while eating their way through another chams body (just kidding, I always liked that wives tail). There are so many successful breeders out there who properly gut-load their insects and DO NOT use preformed vitamin A, how can it be considered a good idea to take the risk? If supplementation is needed, the provitamins are a good choice. There is another consideration on which provitamins, but that is too long for this post.

Once again, these are my thoughts from my personal experiences. Your results may vary. (standard disclaimer). Discuss all concerns with your herp vet before making drastic changes to your husbandry. If anyone desires references for any of this info, I can send it upon request.

The information provided on this site is for your consideration only. You should contact your veterinarian for specific questions concerning your chameleons."

Elizabeth Freer
07-07-2014, 10:18 PM
Contributed by hmaire186 -- July 2014:

Click: http://www.geckotime.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/04/table-large.png
Click source: Nutritional Value of Commercially Raised Insects - Gecko Time - Gecko Time (http://www.geckotime.com/nutritional-value-of-commercially-raised-insects/)

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Feeder Chart #2: Mark Finke + DubiaRoaches.com

(click to enlarge)

Elizabeth Freer
07-13-2014, 03:55 PM
32096 32095

"Springtails normally live in damp soil, and eat mold and fungus. Springtails don't bite or sting people, nor do they damage buildings or the contents. If anything, they'll help with enclosure maintenance.

"You don't have to worry about them, unless they really get out of hand and multiply too much. Normally you'd just have to lower the humidity and let the soil dry a bit, to kill them off. However, that won't work with your geckos, so you could trap them using fruit or the gecko's leftover food. Put some in a tube-type affair with just a small hole for them to get into. Remove it daily, or as needed, dump them outside so they can do their work in the garden. Another way is to replace the soil, wash any plants and whatever you have in the enclosure.

"Either method will work for a while, but you'll probably end up with lots of them again. They're very fertile little things, not much chance of getting rid of them completely once they get started, unless you start over from scratch, including new perches, plants, soil, etc.

"Springtails could wander around outside the tank, but they won't last long. They really need high humidity, so, unless you have your room humidity really high, they'll dehydrate in no time. They won't last long at all outside the enclosure. There's nothing to stop them from climbing over everything in the enclosure, even the gecko, but they won't bite him or you.

"(If you compare the picture you posted to the top one of my pictures, you can see they look quite alike.)

"If you're really in doubt, see if they 'jump' if you put something close to them, even a finger or toothpick. They also float on water, even jump on it and bounce off."

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3 May 2015 tips from CrestedRick
"You don't need to worry about offering additional food for isopods or springtails. They eat the mold and waste from your geckos as well as dead plant material. I have crushed leaf litter over my substrate that they also eat."

Elizabeth Freer
07-13-2014, 11:27 PM
Remarkable Rehab of 2 Severely Emaciated Leopard Geckos......Sunflowerqueen -- September 2017
Click: http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/leopard-geckos-health-and-diseases-/83834-luna-impacted.html

Saskia's Rescues with 2014 radiographs, discussions regarding highly varied feeder diets :-), and supplement usage---begin with post #13 onward
Click: http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/leopard-geckos-general-info-intros-pics/73933-newbie-questions-2.html

Click: http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/leopard-geckos-health-diseases/74684-rescue-adopted-petco-emaciated-not-eating-please-help-me-help-him.html......keeper dynaMOna -- May 2014

Click: http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/leopard-geckos-health-diseases/75077-crypto-confirmed-desperate-trying-paramomycin-anyone-succeed.html......keeper Tara.R -- June 2014

Elizabeth Freer
08-12-2014, 02:18 AM
Elizabeth Freer:
Rep-Cal's Herptivite, Exo Terra multivitamins, and some other reptile multivitamins, only contain beta carotene as the sole source of vitamin A. These multivitamins are insufficient because research has shown lizards, geckos included, need a wee bit of pre-formed vitamin A acetate (retinol) in order for pro-formed vitamin A beta carotene to be absorbed.

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Click: Vitamin A deficiency in Insectivorous Geckos - Gecko Time - Gecko Time (http://www.geckotime.com/vitamin-a-deficiency-in-leopard-geckos/)

Click: Vitamin A in Chameleons: Friend or Foe? (http://www.ivanalfonso.com/2011/06/vitamin-a-in-chameleons-friend-of-foe/)

Vitamin A in Chameleons: Friend or Foe?
Ivan Alfonso, DVM on 15 June 2011

"Vitamin A has a long history in reptile medicine and unfortunately, most of that history isn’t good. It started mainly with turtles developing puffy eyes which was determined to be the result of Vitamin A deficiency. Supplementing with vitamin A became popular and almost every eye ailment in turtles and tortoises alike was attributed to Vitamin A deficiencies. Unfortunately it is a lot easier to overdose with vit A than underdose, and many turtles and tortoises (especially tortoises) developed severe issues due to the overdose. Since then, vitamin A became public enemy and many supplements switched to its precursor (beta- carotene) as the source for vitamin A. The reasoning being that you can’t overdose beta-carotene and reptiles, like mammals, would be able to manufacture Vitamin A from it. And so was the understanding for many, many years until reptile medicine advanced and research, true research, was done with vitamin A and its benefits.

"Recently, and I say recently in relative terms, vitamin A has been discovered to play an important role in eye function, skin health and reproductive function in reptiles among other things. In chameleons, vitamin A plays an important role in keeping the overall health of the reptile and some species need it more than others. It has been my experience that species that are known to include vertebrate prey as part of their diet will need vitamin A in larger quantities than those who are strict insectivores. Panthers, Veileds, Mellers, Oustalets, Verrucosus and to some degree Parson’s all have shown some degree of vitamin A needs. Jackson’s, Mountain, Four-Horned, Giant Three-Horned and other montane species seem to benefit from vitamin A but at much lower levels.

"So how much vitamin A is really needed? So far nobody knows for sure and that’s why it is better to not use too much and be safe. But, when used sporadically and responsibly, vitamin A is an invaluable ally in keeping chameleon health, especially in actively breeding females. I normally recommend using vitamin A in its palmitate form once every 14 days and only 1 little drop at that. On montane species, the dose can be every 21 days. For breeding females I like doing it every 10 days for lowland species and every 14 days for montane species. I use my own mix of vitamins that I make myself for my reptiles and have had great success, but any vitamin A palmitate should work just as good.

"But what about the study that says vitamin A deficiencies are rare? There is such a study and it has been used as a rule in many places. However, the study failed to actually examine every lizard species. The study likely used Iguanas and maybe some carnivorous lizard such as Tegus or Monitors as the subjects. Herbivorous lizards are capable of deriving their vitamin A from precursors found in high carotene items such as carrots, sweet potatoes and squash among others. Carnivorous lizards can get all the vitamin A they need by ingesting the flesh of their prey, being that vitamin A is a fat-soluble vitamin and found in the fat and tissues of vertebrates. So yes, it is very easy to overdose vitamin A in herbivores and carnivores, but what about insectivores? Where is the study on them? A small study was done many years ago where Panther chameleons would show a dramatic health improvement when provided with pre-formed vitamin A. Why would that be? Think about it…..chameleons and all insectivores depend solely on their insect prey to pass along all their nutrition. In captivity, our feeder insects never get the same nutrition they would in the wild therefore providing less than optimal vitamin levels to our chameleons.

"Add to this an even more recent study where it has been proven that reptiles in general do not metabolize beta-carotene into vitamin A, they actually use different precursors for this. We immediately find ourselves depriving our chameleons entirely of vitamin A and then thinking that’s ok because too much vitamin A is bad. Extremes are bad, we need to aim for the balance, the middle of the road, and it is hard to do when you don’t know just how much to give.

"My advice is to not neglect vitamin A in your chameleon’s diet regardless of the species. They need it but maybe in very small amounts. If you use vitamin supplements that contain the active form of vitamin A or pre-formed vitamin A, then use them sporadically as stated above. If you use the liquid form of vitamin A, be careful and use also very sporadically. Aim for very little exposure to the vitamin but some exposure none the less. I have managed to treat many chameleons, mainly panthers, with chronic health problems with a protocol of vitamin A dosing. Not every chameleon issue is due to vitamin A problems and with proper nutrition and supplementation, vitamin A issues should be rare, but don’t think that vitamin A isn’t necessary because you will be running into issues sooner or later."

Elizabeth Freer
08-29-2014, 02:45 AM
Part 1
"I don't use Ca in the enclosure. Way back, almost 20 years ago, and up until 2000, yes, I did use it, because that's what everyone said. After doing some research, including some detailed articles from experts, not forum posters, I removed the Ca and changed my insect feeding routine. Like I've said before, build a better cricket body, and your geckos will benefit.

"My gutload (insect food recipe) changes every time I fill the crickets' food bowls. I have a staple mix, something that's there all the time, but even the proportions of that change with each batch. The only thing that's the same is the ingredients, the amount of each varies. Then the extra food items like fruit, veggies, oddball things, changes daily. Even though some of the food doesn't have the recommended Ca:P ratio, sometimes it's off on the 'bad' side, it's never that way for long. Give them some banana slices today, considered a 'bad ratio', they won't have any for a few more days, maybe weeks. Tomorrow they might get prickly pear for their fruit, which more than balances out the bananas from the day before. Same with veggies, even 'bad' ratio ones will get balanced out by the 'good' ones they'll get.

"The crickets get a lot of variety in their diet. I buy the smaller ones so I have a few weeks to gutload them, improve their overall nutrition. The staple diet is a mix of various whole grain flours and/or other ground grains, dried legumes (grind them myself if need be) as well as monkey chow biscuits. This mix is always present, the fruit and veggies change daily, heavy on the prickly pear because it's good food, great water source, and they love it.

"If you use only one gutload all the time, same brand, or even a couple of brands, you are really limiting the nutrients that the crickets get, and pass on to the geckos. Not one brand is complete, some are better than others, but there's a limit to what's inside. It's not just a matter of how well the ingredients work in a mixture, but also cost - if the ingredient is too expensive, it won't be in a gutload no matter how nutritious it is. That's why I vary the diet. Wild insects have access to a variety of foods that grow in their area, very few stick to just one food source. Crickets will eat must about anything growing around them, they'll even nibble on animal carcasses, though they're not really carnivores, just opportunistic scavengers.

"Since using that gutload method, I haven't had to use Ca in the enclosures for any leopards, AFTs, U. milii, Teratoscincus, chameleons, or any of the other species. The crickets get dusted once a week, mix of Ca and vitamins. The rest of their Ca comes from the crickets.

"It's a well known fact that too much Vit D3 and/or Ca can cause 'reverse' MBD. Dusting with D3 can cause problems, you might not realize you're giving too much, or too little. A young, growing, leo will show the signs a lot faster than an adult. Give too much D3, the Ca gets leached out of the bones. Don't give enough Ca, or D3, and again, the bones suffer. If letting them self-dose with Ca improves the situation, then obviously you're not doing something right. No gecko should have to lap up Ca to get enough. Something is off in the Ca : D3 ratio.

"Even just a couple of licks of Ca can supply a heck of a big dose of it. Consider a tongue full of Ca for a hatchling, compare that to a human adult getting a lick of Ca the same 'size'. That would be like a tablespoon of Ca. Have you ever had that much Ca daily, or weekly, in one sitting? I bet not. That much would be the equivalent of several weeks' worth of Ca for you. Yet we don't think there's anything wrong when we let the geckos dose themselves with that much? The amount the gecko licks would coat the inside of the intestines and hinder absorption of other nutrients, like D3. If by any chance the gecko is getting too much D3, licking the Ca by the tongue full will actually prevent it from absorbing the excess D3, making it look like the gecko needed more Ca to fix the problem, when it actually used the Ca to stop the excess D3 from being absorbed."

Part 2
"I'm not saying that is the problem with the juvie geckos you mentioned, but it is one possible reason they improved after self-dosing. Considering that most dusted insects are actually so loaded down with powder that they look like snowmen instead of just lightly dusted, there's a really good chance that the geckos were overdosed on D3. Most supplements contain a rather high dose of D3, heavily dusting the crickets would give a big dose of D3.

"It's a bit of work to keep the gutload routine, lots of variety, but it's worth it. It doesn't even have to be expensive. Summer is a good time, lots of free plant sources outside. When I go out walking the trails, I'll gather a few things for the crickets. There's lots of variety from the garden too. Dandelion blossoms and leaves, chicory, lambs' quarters, even herbs. Sunflowers are really good sources. The leaves (torn into pieces because they can be a bit tough for the crickets to bite into), even slices of sunflower stalks in the fall after the flowers are done. A chunk of blossom, complete with seeds can be used, another favourite food.

"There are so many choices available for feeding the crickets, many free or dirt cheap. The variety adds nutrients that are probably not found in commercial foods, or maybe just in minute amounts. It also serves up the vitamins and minerals in a more natural way, safer dosage, and probably more delicious (might help with those picky geckos who don't like to eat dusted bugs)."

In the end, the geckos are the winners.

Elizabeth Freer
09-21-2014, 10:31 PM
Thanks to Hilde

Caution added by Elizabeth Freer: Butterworms are NOT suitable for crested geckos. Butterworms are known to cause severe facial burns on crested geckos!

Click: Butterworms as Reptile Food: Nutritional Content & Care (http://blogs.thatpetplace.com/thatreptileblog/2014/09/16/butterworms-reptile-amphibian-food-nutritional-content-care/#.VB97jPldWIJ)

Posted by: Frank Indiviglio in Amphibians, feeding and diet, Reptile and Amphibian Health September 16, 2014

Click this GU thread for updates on nutritional info about butterworms: http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/feeders-food-nutrition/76365-butterworms-nutritional-content-care.html#post432837

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Butterworms as Reptile-Amphibian Food: Nutritional Content and Care
Butterworms, also known as Trevo Worms, are highly nutritious caterpillars that deserve more attention from reptile, amphibian and invertebrate keepers. They have many of the advantages associated with wild-caught insects yet lack most of the risks. Their calcium content of 42.9 mg/100g (as compared to 14 and 3.2 mg/100g for crickets and mealworms) is especially-impressive. Simple to use and store, and accepted by a huge array of species, Butterworms are in many ways superior to the more commonly-used feeders. I promoted their use throughout my long career as a zookeeper, and today would like to introduce them to those readers who may be interested in adding important nutritional variety to their pets’ diets. Please also see the articles linked below for information on other “alternative” foods such as sow bugs, sap beetles, leaf litter invertebrates, earwigs and many others.

Natural History
Although they resemble beetle grubs, Butterworms are actually the larvae, or caterpillars, of the Chilean Trevo Moth (Chilecomandia moorei). As far as is known, they are found only in Chile, where their diet is comprised entirely of Trevo Bush (Trevoa trinervis) leaves.

Butterworms are collected rather than captive-reared, and are subjected to low levels of radiation before being exported from Chile. Irradiation prevents them from pupating, thereby addressing US Department of Agriculture concerns that the species could become established in the USA. This process, and the fact that they cannot be bred commercially, renders Butterworms a bit more costly than similar insects, but I believe their value as a food source merits the extra expense.

Nutritional Information
Being wild-caught, Butterworms likely provide nutrients absent from commercially-reared insects. They also exceed all other typical feeder insects in calcium content (please see Introduction, above), with only silkworms and phoenix worms approaching them in this regard (some find silkworms to be delicate, and phoenix worms are quite small, but both are also worth investigating).

The Butterworm’s protein content of 16.2% is on par with that of crickets, phoenix worms and waxworms, and below that provided by silkworms and roaches. Fat content stands at 5.21%, which is less than (considerably so, in many cases) that of all other commonly-used feeders.

Please Note
The nutritional needs of reptiles and amphibians vary by species and by individual age, health, and other factors. The fact that a food is “low in ash” or “high in protein” does not necessarily mean that it is a good or bad choice for your pet. Please post specific nutrition/feeding questions below.

Why Use Butterworms?
In addition to their nutritional value, Butterworms are readily accepted by a wide variety of reptiles, amphibians, tarantulas, fishes, scorpions, birds and small mammals. They vary in coloration through shades of yellow, red and orange, and have a distinct, “fruity” scent. I’ve not seen any research on the subject, but these qualities perhaps may make them attractive to predators…in any case, Butterworms often incite interest from reluctant feeders.

Butterworms range from ½ inch to 1 ½ inches in size, with the average in most containers being ¾ inch. They are far plumper than waxworms, and ideally suited for both small and larger pets.

These colorful, chubby caterpillars are more active than waxworms and phoenix worms, yet can easily be confined to a shallow bowl or jar lid. I’ve found this to be especially useful when keeping certain treefrogs, geckos and other arboreal species that are reluctant to feed on the ground. Butterworms may also be used to provide important dietary variety to insectivorous snakes (Smooth Green Snakes, etc.), terrestrial salamanders and others that tend to accept relatively few traditional feeder species.

Butterworms can be kept under refrigeration at 42-45 F for at least 4, and possibly up to 6, months. I keep my refrigerator at 39 F, and have had no problems with losses at that temperature over periods of 2-4 weeks.

Elizabeth Freer
10-18-2014, 06:42 PM
See below for low phosphorus mealworm and superworm dry diet and bedding recommendations.

We wish to approximate a 1.5-2.0 calcium : 1.0 phosphorus ratio with the insects and worms we feed our geckos.

With the exception of Phoenix worms (BSFL) all the bugs and worms we feed our geckos are much higher in phosphorus than calcium. Phosphorus impairs the absorption of calcium. Feeding high phosphorus foods to the bugs/worms makes correcting that imbalance impossible. That's why supplements containing very low amounts of phosphorus as well as very low phosphorus content in the feeders' diets are important.

We lightly dust bugs and worms to correct this imbalance. Dusting should be secondary. Build a better feeder body! Feed bugs and worms the highest quality dry diet possible 24/7 + add low phosphorus/high calcium veggies in a dish off to the side (for example: pesticide-free collard greens and dandelion greens).

Wheat germ, wheat bran, and oats contain HUGE amounts of phosphorus in comparison to calcium. Check out the ratios! I don't recommend the following beddings either for keeping or for breeding mealworms or superworms.

Click: Foods List (http://ndb.nal.usda.gov/ndb/search/list)
Enter some food like wheat germ
Scroll down for calcium and phosphorus per 100 grams, for instance, and compare

Wheat Germ -- Show Foods (http://ndb.nal.usda.gov/ndb/foods/show/6542?manu=&fgcd=)
calcium 39
phosphorus 842
ratio: 1 part calcium : 22 parts phosphorus

Wheat Bran -- Show Foods (http://ndb.nal.usda.gov/ndb/foods/show/6541?manu=&fgcd=)
calcium 73
phosphorus 1,013
ratio: 1 part calcium : 14 parts phosphorus

Oats -- Show Foods (http://ndb.nal.usda.gov/ndb/foods/show/6507?fgcd=&manu=&lfacet=&format=&count=&max=35&offset=&sort=&qlookup=oats)
calcium 54
phosphorus 523
ratio: 1 part calcium : 10 parts phosphorus

Kretschmer's Wheat Germ is commonly sold in the USA.

WHAT CAN BE USED INSTEAD? Here are some low phosphorus mealworm and superworm dry diets and beddings sold in the USA.

Finely grind the following foods in a coffee/spice grinder or place them in a tough plastic bag and pound them with a hammer.

Already ground ---> Click: 1 lb Pro Gutload - Professional Reptiles (http://www.professionalreptiles.com/supplies/food-and-water/insect-food/1-lb-pro-gutload.html)
Albers’ All Purpose Poultry Feed
Purina Layena Crumbles

Here’s a caution about poultry feeds in general.

I only recommend Albers' or Purina Layena Crumbles' brands of poultry feed. If you cannot find those in the USA, don't buy poultry feed. Some poultry laying feeds contain diatomaceous earth. Diatomaceous earth is a natural antiparasitic for bird flocks. If ingested by insects, diatomaceous earth is fatal.

In addition make certain the chicken feed is NOT medicated.

If diatomaceous earth is in a product, it should be listed on the label.

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(click to enlarge)

I encourage anyone who is thinking about keeping mealworms, superworms, et cetera, on a bed of wheat germ, wheat bran, or oats to check out the ratios of calcium : phosphorus first! According to this USDA Foods List, wheat germ is hugely high in phosphorus and extremely low in calcium. Judging by those numbers how could we ever approximate the recommended 1.5-2.0 calcium:1.0 phosphorus levels that way?

On the 14 September 2015 I confirmed in person with an experienced Registered Dietitian that this USDA foods database provides excellent and very reliable information.

For additional help click this USDA link: Foods List (http://ndb.nal.usda.gov/ndb/search/list). Just enter almost any food in that link and then scroll to see calcium, phosphorus, et cetera.

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Use a (very) fine mesh stainless steel colander to sift through the mealworm bedding when you refresh it. I have a different super fine mesh colander that’s 6.25 inches in diameter. I’ve had it so long I don’t recall the brand. Mine looks much finer than the strainers I link here.

https://www.macys.com/shop/product/martha-stewart-collection-set-of-2-mesh-colanders-created-for-macys?ID=390140&pla_country=US&CAGPSPN=pla&cm_mmc=MSN_Bing_Seasonal_PLA-_-All_Products_-_BS_All_Products-_-11617622401-_-pg1050995623_c_kclickid_1742f70e-c7c5-4105-8133-c57e5da50368_KID_macys.kenshoo@outlook.com_2883537 1_4168314214_11617622401_pla-4584963490531886_848113011120USA__c_KID_&trackingid=489x1050995623&m_sc=sem&m_sb=Bing&m_tp=PLA&m_ac=MSN_Bing_Seasonal_PLA&m_ag=AllProducts&m_cn=All_Products_-_BS&m_pi=bi_cmp-28835371_adg-4168314214_ad-11617622401_pla-4584963490531886_dev-c_ext-_prd-848113011120USA

Elizabeth Freer
10-31-2014, 12:22 AM
Click: http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/feeders-food-and-nutrition/35613-mealworm-breeding.html [the info begins on post 2 by gbhil]

Another valuable mealworm thread: http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/leopard-geckos-food-and-feeding-issues-/79242-mealworms.html

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Click: Mealworm Life Cycle (http://mealwormcare.org/life-cycle/) [contributed by JessJohnson87]

Click: Sourmash for Mealworms - Gecko Time - Gecko Time (http://www.geckotime.com/sourmash-for-mealworms/)

If you are setting up mealworm bins to breed them, don't use Timberline's vita-bugs "giant mealworms". Those giant mealworms have been hormonally treated and are infertile!

I keep my mealworms on a bed of ground Albers' All Purpose Poultry Feed in a 6 quart Sterilite bin at room temperatures of ~70*F (21.1*C). Add a dish/lid of chopped collards or pesticide-free dandelions flowers/leaves off to one side. That keeps their dry diet mold-free and dry. Turnip greens and mustard greens are other high calcium/low phosphorus options.

Feb 2016 - Scroll to post 35 for an interesting "drawer type" mealworm breeding setup used by swisswiss: http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/feeders-food-and-nutrition/80291-cricket-farm-geckos-4.html#post459442

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Diatomaceous Earth Alert: Some poultry/chicken feeds contain diatomaceous earth. Both Albers All Purpose Poultry Feed and Purina Layena Sunfresh Crumbles do NOT contain diatomaceous earth.

"Some chicken laying feeds contain diatomaceous earth as a natural anti-parasitic for bird flocks. If ingested by insects, diatomaceous earth is fatal. The microscopic diatoms cut up their insides and cause a nasty death. It is also used topically for insect infestations as it will cut through exoskeletons or soft bodied worms and cause "bleed out." I have not read of anyone accidentally using a chicken feed with it in there and what effects it had on a colony of roaches/crickets/mealworms, et cetera, but I believe better safe than sorry and to warn people of it in case someone wants to use a different brand."

Quoted from hmarie186 -- 1 February 2015

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acpart/Aliza -- Mealworm & Superworm Tips: updated July 2017

"1. Keep both mealworms and superworms at normal room temperatures. The refrigerator is too cool for them.

2. I keep both my mealworms and superworms on this bedding from "Professional Reptiles".

Click: 1 lb Pro Gutload - Professional Reptiles (http://www.professionalreptiles.com/supplies/food-and-water/insect-food/1-lb-pro-gutload.html)
Click: Food & Water :: Insect Food (http://www.professionalreptiles.com/supplies/insect-food/)
"The bedding, obviously, doubles as gutload. When most of the bedding has turned into droppings, I either add some of the original stuff or sift out all the droppings and put in new bedding. This is easier to do with superworms since they're bigger. Sometimes I lose tiny mealworms in the sifting process."

3. In Europe you could do one of the following:

Get a variety of grains and cereal and put them in the blender. They can eat whole grains, but it will be much easier for you to get them out of the bedding if the grain is ground up. OR
Buy some chicken feed that does not contain diatomaceous earth.
Most veggie peels work well. You can also feed crickets, mealworms, and superworms vegetable pieces that you would normally throw away: eggplant peels, carrot tops, cucumber peels, broccoli and cauliflower stems, Bell pepper cores, sweet potato ends, apples, and strawberry tops. They completely demolish them!

Very juicy veggies and fruits are not a good idea. I tried cantaloupe rinds once and it was a disaster!

Remove seeds from apples and Bell peppers. Apple seeds can, and have, caused choking!

4. I feed superworms by dropping 1 at a time in front of the gecko. For a very reluctant gecko, I hold the gecko and gently poke the superworm at the mouth until it bites the worm. I have a gecko that rarely eats in the winter and a few years ago he was losing a lot of weight. I used a hypodermic needle to poke the superworm, got some of the guts on the end of the needle and poked it (gently) into the gecko's mouth. He didn't get much, but it did some good and he eventually started eating again. He's about to go into his annual winter fast, but he weighs 90 grams right now.

5. I don't have any problem keeping mealworms alive at high temperatures. The only thing is, the higher the temp, the faster they'll turn into beetles. I have no AC, so it can occasionally get into the 90's in my house! If I wanted to keep the mealworms cool, I'd keep them down in the basement, but I'm not into running up and down the stairs every day. I buy them small, knowing that they'll grow larger soon, but it will extend the amount of time they're usable. I do breed them, so having them morph isn't a problem for me. The only other problem in hot and humid environments is having grain mites infest the bedding. Here's an article about how to deal with that: http://www.geckotime.com/how-i-got-rid-of-grain-mites/"

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Hilde: On separating the casings from the mealworms - March 2015

"I use one of these: Amazon.com - Polder 6631-75 Stainless-Steel Sink Strainer with Extending Rubber-Grip Arms - Colanders (http://www.amazon.com/Polder-6631-75.../dp/B00006NWBG)

"Place the strainer in a tub (I use a drawer from one of my storage racks), then dump the whole mess, mealworms and substrate, in there. The strainer can sit in the tub, or extend the side grips to let it hang. Shake it a bit to let the substrate and small worms fall through. Larger worms and the castings will stay put. I do this outside if possible, since it gets a bit dusty. Next just blow air over the strainer to blow the castings out.

"The larger worms go into a new raising container. The smaller ones that fell through with the substrate go back to the original container, with some fresh substrate added to the old. Trying to separate small ones tends to kill them, so I leave them until they're big enough to get trapped in the strainer. It also allows any eggs to hatch, no use wasting them by pitching them out with the substrate. As long as there aren't any beetles to lay more eggs, it generally takes about 2 cleanings to get the worms big enough to separate out completely, leaving only the old substrate which can then be pitched.

"Big worms get can get fresh substrate the same way, strain out the old, blow the casings out, and return them to the container with fresh substrate."

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:( Wheat germ, wheat bran, and oats contain HUGE amounts of phosphorus in comparison to calcium. Check the ratios! I do not recommend those beddings for breeding mealworms at all.

Wheat Germ -- Show Foods (http://ndb.nal.usda.gov/ndb/foods/show/6542?manu=&fgcd=)
calcium 39
phosphorus 842
ratio: 1 part calcium : 22 parts phosphorus

Wheat Bran -- Show Foods (http://ndb.nal.usda.gov/ndb/foods/show/6541?manu=&fgcd=)
calcium 73
phosphorus 1,013
ratio: 1 part calcium : 14 parts phosphorus

Oats -- Show Foods (http://ndb.nal.usda.gov/ndb/foods/show/6507?fgcd=&manu=&lfacet=&format=&count=&max=35&offset=&sort=&qlookup=oats)
calcium 54
phosphorus 523
ratio: 1 part calcium : 10 parts phosphorus

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May 2017:

For Hilde's & Aliza's tips to kill grain mites in mealworm cultures (posts 12, 15, 18 ) click: http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/leopard-geckos-food-and-feeding-issues-/83013-mealworm-beetles-pupa-dying-2.html

For Maurice Pudlo's link: http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/feeders-food-and-nutrition/66772-insect-hydration.html

Elizabeth Freer
11-01-2014, 01:10 AM
I use 72 hour UniHeat pads all the time to provide extra insurance in case the geckos meet some delay.

I shipped 4 boxes in September/October 2013 using the 72 hours. All 7 geckos arrived in fine shape! In October 2014 I shipped 2.0 two year old Oedura castelnaui overnight via Reptiles Express. Both geckos arrived fine!

I enclosed a min-max Taylor digital thermometer while I traveled to the FedEx Ship Center in Portland in October 2014. Maximum temperature when I opened the box to remove the digital was in the 80s F. That was 5 hours after activating the heat pack.


Departing & receiving temperatures between 55*F & 80*F. Check all potential hubs.
In 2013 FedEx told me that on time delivery was their first priority. That means our geckos/boxes could be sent anywhere!
Cut down "unsupervised" ground transport as much as possible
Use cardboard boxes with 3/4 inch styrofoam lining; 1/2 inch lining minimum.
Use a small screwdriver to poke one small hole through both the styrofoam and cardboard at one end of box to provide airflow.
Poke or solder breathing holes in the plastic deli cups all around: top, bottom, & sides
Add some very lightly paper towels for cushioning
Add gecko to the deli cup
Activate the heat pack about 30 minutes before sealing the 12 x 9 x 6 inch box
Add deli container with gecko
Place the usually unwrapped heat pack right next to the deli cup or between two deli cups. Can lightly wrap heat pack with newspaper if desired.
Add styrofoam pellets to fill the box. Replace styrofoam top. Close box.
Tape center strip. Tape top and bottom box flaps on both sides with 2 strips of tape each rather than completing sealing off side flaps.
Do not tape corners of box to allow a little ventilation.
Use a shipping facilitator like Reptiles2You. The shipping prices will be better. Debbie Price offers excellent customer service!

Before shipping the first time I ran tests in a cool interior room with the box sealed up as if to go (without the geckos). In a 24 hour period the temps inside the box only exceeded the room temps outside the box by ~10*F.

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February 2016
Cryopak Phase 22 low temperature packs aren't supposed to raise the temperature above 72*F.

Click: Cold Chain Packaging, Data Loggers & Monitoring and Package Testing (http://www.cryopak.com)

Click: Ship Your Reptiles with Cool Packs from Reptiles2You.com (http://www.reptiles2you.com/Cold-Packs-Cryopak-Phase-22-P89.aspx)

Cryopak Phase 22 packs are great for applications that need to maintain a controlled room temperature
Phase change temperature is 22°C /71.6°F
Provides thermal protection when shipping products at various temperatures
When used as liquid, acts as gentle heat source (keeping the contents warm)
When used as solid, acts as a heat sink (protecting the contents from heat)

More Details:
"These packs are not only high quality but also HIGH TECH! They are designed to undergo "phase change" (to freeze or melt) at 22°C / 71.6°F. If you think the temp inside your box might rise ABOVE this, use a frozen Phase 22 pack. It will absorb the heat energy in your box as the pack changes from solid to liquid, thereby keeping the contents of the box cooler.

"If you are concerned that the temp inside your box might dip slightly BELOW 22°C / 71.6°F, use an un-frozen pack. It will release it's heat energy inside your box as the pack tries to "phase change" from liquid to solid, thereby keeping the contents of the box slightly warmer.

"HOWEVER - note that the warming properties of this process are NOT as powerful as true Shipping Warmers (Heat Packs).

"If you expect your shipment to encounter temps below 60°F we recommend using a true Heat Pack shipping warmer."

Elizabeth Freer
11-20-2014, 05:02 AM
Click: http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/do-yourself-diy/74965-cork-round-planters.html

:cheer: to CrestedRick! These are attractive additions to any vivarium.

Elizabeth Freer
11-24-2014, 03:11 AM
July 2017 Impaction Thread: http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/leopard-geckos-health-and-diseases-/83271-urgent-leo-impacted-eco-earth.html#post473837
Click leo "Peach": http://www.geckosunlimited.com/commu...impaction.html
Click leo "Geoffrey": http://www.geckosunlimited.com/commu...impaction.html
For this thread click: http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/leopard-geckos-substrates-substrate-issues/77158-particulate-substrate-impaction-cautions-leopard-geckos.html#post436286

We think that impaction will never happen to our particular leopard geckos, but can we be 100% sure? Certainly there are cautions like avoiding particulate substrates until a leopard gecko reaches a certain age, avoiding calci-sand altogether, using feeding dishes, or whatever.

Impaction could happen by eating chitinous insects or worms. Impaction can happen by ingesting paper towels, sphagnum moss, or other warm humid hide substrates like Eco Earth's coco fiber. Impaction is more likely to happen with dehydrated geckos. The keeper always needs to be vigilant. :)

Roughly textured (~3/8 inch thick) ceramic, porcelain, and slate tiles are easy to keep clean! These tiles conduct heat from an UTH well. They eliminate substrate impaction, are attractive, permanent, and cheap.

When particulate substrates are used there is always S-O-M-E possibility of impaction. Who would be the loser?

How do we know when, maybe, a leopard gecko might ingest some substrate along with a bug or a worm that's escaped from a feeding dish?
How do we know when the usual aim might be a little off target?
How can we predict when a sudden noise in a room might startle a leopard gecko?
How do we know when, maybe, a leopard gecko is feeling "a bit under the weather" and eating does not proceed "as usual"?
Yes, there are many unknowns in life. Particulate substrates can be avoided. We are the winners! :D

Elizabeth Freer
11-27-2014, 12:57 PM
Some people fuss because Zoo Med's Reptivite contains some phosphorus. These are the reasons I don't fuss.

Reasons to ONLY use a wee pinch of no D3 (plain) Reptivite multivitamins 1x per week + very light dustings of Repti Calcium with D3 1x per week. The frequency of supplement dustings depends upon the diet one feeds insects and worms 24/7.
My vet recommends only a wee pinch of Zoo Med Reptivite multivitamins 1x per week.
In my experience, geckos seem to require ONLY a small amount of vitamin A acetate + other vitamins as long as their insects and worms are well fed.
Both Reptivite multivitamins (with and without vitamin D3) contain enough phosphorus to make the dusting levels roughly 2 parts calcium : 1 part phosphorus before you even consider the high phosphorus naturally contained in bugs. :(
Phosphorus impairs calcium absorption. The more phosphorus a supplement has, the less any calcium is absorbed by the bones.
Both Zoo Med Repti Calciums are phosphorus-free, so you can lightly dust for D3 without adding phosphorus. :)
Both Reptivite multivitamins (with & without D3) contain the same amount of calcium carbonate. (That's good!)
Vitamin D3 needs to be taken with food.
Calcium needs vitamin D3 in order to be absorbed. Dusting with plain calcium carbonate without giving vitamin D3 only helps if there is residual D3 inside your gecko.
Feed your bugs and worms the best dry diet you can afford! That builds strong feeder bodies. Consider light dustings of Reptivite multivitamins without D3 and Repti Calcium with D3 as secondary.
Some geckos don't like the taste of Reptivite multivitamins on their bugs.

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Click: http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/gekko-including-tokay-golden-white-lined-etc/79534-cork-rounds-drying-geckos-feetsies.html

Scroll to post 4 for GU billewicz's support of Scott Stahl, DVM and Zoo Med's ReptiVite™:

"My gut load mix includes paprika for Vitamin A. I also include carrot and dandelion greens for their moisture and other vitamins and nutrients. Plant based is always more assimilable that manufactured supplements.

Speaking of which, Dr. Scott Stahl, the premiere reptile vet, highly recommends the ZooMed product, ReptiVite™. Originally formulated for zoos, it seems to work better than any other product I've tried including the Repashy supplements."

Elizabeth Freer
12-11-2014, 06:43 AM
majahawt......January 2015

Click: Pastrygeckos - Lizards in hamster wheels/balls (http://pastrygeckos.tumblr.com/post/106573258809/lizards-in-hamster-wheels-balls)

Hilde......October 2016

Click: http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/leopard-geckos-husbandry-housing-and-heating/81963-leo-enrichment-hamster-wheels.html

Elizabeth Freer
01-02-2015, 01:15 AM
Contributed by a vet who also keeps leopard geckos:

"Urate color depends upon things like diet, health, et cetera. Generally urates are very white. More pigmented (especially green) urates can indicate an issue. It is possible that if the animal has not passed stool or urates for some time there can be a little staining of the urate portion of the waste products. I also think that this is sometimes the case if the stool is loose. Then there is a greater chance for pigments to bleed from feces to urates. If it is just little off-color I would keep an eye on it and if it is infrequent I wouldn’t worry. If we are talking dark yellow or green that's biliverdin and it implies that there is something more serious going on.

Reptiles lack an enzyme called biliverdin reductase that allows them to convert biliverdin to bilirubin (as mammals do). So their bile is green. If the liver cannot handle removing it from the bloodstream efficiently, levels can exceed the renal threshold and spill into the urates. That would result in the urates being a greenish yellow to green color. What confounds this is that there's some mixing of feces and urine/urates in the cloaca so that some fecal pigments can stain the urates a light yellow color."

Elizabeth Freer
01-18-2015, 02:22 PM
If you have a choice with any UTH, I'd NOT get one that has adhesive. That's because reusing it could be a fire hazard. The internal wires might get damaged when it is removed from it's original position.

The actual dimensions of Fluker's 11 x 17 inch heat mats are 11 x 17 inches. The actual dimensions of UltraTherm 11 x 17 inch heat mats are 9.5 x 17 inches.

Snugly stick the UTH underneath the enclosure with heat resistant aluminum tape from most any hardware store.

Do NOT use any UTH underneath the tank IF using a wooden enclosure.

All Living Things 11 x 17.......24 watts
Ultratherm UTHs 11 x 17......22 watts
Flukers 11 x 17............24 watts
Hagen Exo Terra 11 x 17......25 watts

Elevate your tank off the enclosure at the tank's corners 1/4-1/2 inch. That provides required ventilation for your UTH! Otherwise heat will build up and could potentially cause a fire

The pads used on chair legs to prevent scratching the floor are one solution.

Consider the low Exo Terra enclosures that are just 12 inches high. :)
For a 24 x 18 inch enclosure consider a diagonal gradient. For instance, the warmest ground in the far left corner and the coolest ground in the near right corner. That can be achieved by "snaking" Zoo Med heat cables or Flexwatt heat tape from the far left corner to the near left and far right corners.
The Bean Farm has a pdf about Ultratherm UTHs on their site.

Elizabeth Freer
02-13-2015, 08:03 AM
"Hi there, and welcome to the exciting, confusing, and at times downright frustrating world of keeping leopard geckos.

These are the facts to the best of my knowledge, and I hope they help you. If anyone has knowledge to the contrary, please feel free to correct me.

1) For the vast majority of time leopard geckos have been kept in captivity, it has been thought they don't really need the UV lights because they are nocturnal (actually, crepuscular if you want to get nitpicky).

2) Relatively recently, some people have started using UV lights based on the theory that leopard geckos would be exposed to low levels of UV radiation in the evenings and mornings in the wild.

3) There is limited research out there on the subject. Many people who do use UV lights disagree on how to use them.

4) Because this is a relatively recent trend and because technology behind the UV bulbs is evolving, to the best of my knowledge there have not been any comparisons of the health of UV-exposed leopard geckos vs. non-UV-exposed leopard geckos over the course of their lifetimes.

5) Of my three leopard geckos, each has their own tolerance for light in general. With that in mind, if I used a UV light all three would be exposed to it for different amounts of time. How do I know which ones are getting enough and which are getting too much?

6) For many years now, leopard geckos have been successfully kept without UV lights into their late teens and even older.

Conclusion: I prefer to use a good calcium powder with D3 and forgo the UV lights until there is more sound research and methodology behind the use of UV bulbs for leopard geckos. I prefer to have something a little more substantial than a handful of hobbyist's opinions, even though they could be right.

I hope that helps, and I hope others share their thoughts. Good luck."

Click, then scroll to post #2: http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/leopard-geckos-husbandry-housing-heating/77824-thoughts-uv-20-gal-habitat.html#post440619

[With much appreciation to Geckologist.tj......Feb 2015]

Elizabeth Freer
02-22-2015, 10:18 PM
Click: http://www.everythinggecko.com/gecko-supplies/light-and-heat/zoo-med-ceramic-heater-clone-en.html

Click: HerpSupplies.com - Reptile Supplies, Vivarium, Reptile Accessories, Reptile Habitat, Reptile Lighting, Zoo Med, Reptile Supply, Lizard Supplies, Reptarium, Rep-Cal, Flukers, Reptile Bedding, Fresh-Air Habitat, Reptile Heat Pads (http://www.herpsupplies.com/) still carries Pearlco 100s and 150s

HerpSupplies.com gives superb customer service! :D

The 30 watt CHEs may no longer be available.

Pearlco used to manufacture top-of-the-line Ceramic Heat Emitters (30, 60, 100, & 150 watts). I have used the 30 watt and 100 watt sizes. Those bulbs are roughly the same size. Standard enclosed overhead domes give both these "smallish" bulbs ample screen clearance.

"Pearlco is a world wide leader in infrared heating tools designed specifically for animal husbandry. Their products are recognized by zoos all over the globe as being efficient and reliable sources of infrared heat. Pearlco heat emitters generate heat with no visible light, and are available in a wide variety of sizes to suit the specific needs of your animals.

Note: "Pearlco" brand ceramic bulbs are now packaged by Solaris??? Newtek??? They are from the exact same facility, and are the exact same quality as they always have been, but have been bought out by a new name."

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April 2015 addendum:
I replaced my dead 100 watt Pearlco CHE that lasted 4+ years with an All Living Things (PetSmart brand) 150 watt CHE. When placed inside my Fluker's 10 inch diameter clamp lamp BOTH the Pearlco and Creature Comfort brand 150 watt CHEs touched the screen! :(

Elizabeth Freer
03-21-2015, 11:48 PM
30 December 2019: I may be updating this article. Miracle Care Pets, the current producer of Vionate, can be found @ MiracleCarePet.com, 800-635-2044, located in Dayton, Ohio.

((I don't recommend either Vionate powder or Osteo-Form SA powder.))
It's been years since Vionate and Osteo-Form SA powder were commonly used (except perhaps by breeders)!
Now we have reptile-specific multivitamins and calcium with D3 products.

Click: https://www.drugs.com/vet/osteo-form-sa.html

Vionate powder contains

vitamin A palmitate = 220,000 IU/kg
vitamin D3 (D-activated animal sterol) = 22,000 IU/kg
calcium = 9.5--11.4%
phosphorus = 4.79% (47,828 mg/kg)

Zoo Med's ReptiVite™ with D3 powder contains

vitamin A acetate (retinol) = 220,264 IU/kg
vitamin D3 = 10,390 IU/kg, 22,907 IU/pound
calcium = 24.9% min, 28% max
phosphorus = 10.6% minimum

Osteo-Form SA powder contains
Guaranteed Analysis Per 350 grams:

Vitamin A palmitate = 328,571 IU/kg, 115,000 IU (?)
Vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) = 32,857 IU/kg, 11,500 IU (?)
Calcium = 27.0% min, 32.0% max
Phosphorus = 16.5% minimum

Ingredients: Dicalcium phosphate, tricalcium phosphate, calcium carbonate, polysorbate 80, citric acid, ascorbic acid, (a preservative), vitamin A palmitate and cholecalciferol.

Elizabeth Freer
04-03-2015, 04:39 AM
Here she goes!

34377 34376 34375 34373 34372 34371

34368 34370 34367 34378

Riverside Reptiles
04-05-2015, 08:51 AM
Unless this information is coming from a nutritionist, it holds little water IMO. Also, poultry mix is generally mostly corn and not often considered a good source of food for your feeder insects. In any case, I still would not use two products containing D3. It's overused in general in the hobby as it is.

Riverside Reptiles
04-05-2015, 12:02 PM
That's odd because I received an email with you quoting me in this thread and saying that you disagree with me. Obviously, you have since deleted your quote. If you don't want me to comment in here, don't quote me in here. Pretty much common sense.

Riverside Reptiles
04-06-2015, 03:06 PM
I just received 3 more notices of you quoting me in this post. Please stop quoting me. You're wasting my time.

Elizabeth Freer
06-29-2015, 05:37 PM
29 June 2015:

(click to enlarge)

"There are several forms of vitamin D.

Vitamin D without a subscript (the tiny 3 behind the D, for example) refers to either D2 or D3 or both. Either form will be converted to a biologically active form, one that the body uses whatever it needs the vitamin D for.

The two major physiologically relevant forms of vitamin D are D2 (ergocalciferol) and D3(cholecalciferol). Vitamin D3 is photosynthesized in the skin of vertebrates by the action of solar ultraviolet (UV) B radiation. Vitamin D and D2 are processed in the body to produce whatever form of vitamin D is needed - so as long as there is some vitamin D present, and the liver and kidneys are fully functional, then vitamin D will be converted to the appropriate form.

The whole process is rather complicated, this is just a quick and simple summary. If you want to look into it in detail, Google will have the answers for you.

Saying there is vitamin D in the supplement is all that's needed, the body will make the other forms. If you have a sick animal, compromised liver or kidney function, then it's better to supply the specific form of vitamin D. It is assumed you're using it for a healthy animal, if it's sick, you'd be taking it to a vet who could prescribe the appropriate form according to the gecko's condition.

The supplement in question says it contains all the essential vitamins, minerals and trace elements. Since this is a very reputable product, it's quite safe to assume that it also means it includes the appropriate form(s) of vitamins, including vitamin D."

......Our geckos appreciate your feedback, Hilde!

Click for thread: http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/feeders-food-and-nutrition/78950-calcium.html

Elizabeth Freer
08-01-2015, 02:43 AM
Dry Insect Diet: A 24/7 dry insect diet should contain (~16% protein, less than 5% fat, moderate fiber) + vitamin D3, vitamin A acetate (retinol) or vitamin A palmitate, and vitamin B12!

Finely grind all these pellets in a Krups coffee/spice grinder or place the pellets in a plastic bag and pound them with a hammer.

***Zoo Med's Natural ADULT Bearded Dragon Food*** OR
(Already ground) Pro Gutload diet (by Professional Reptiles) OR
Click: 1 lb Pro Gutload - Professional Reptiles (http://www.professionalreptiles.com/supplies/food-and-water/insect-food/1-lb-pro-gutload.html)
Click: Food & Water :: Insect Food (http://www.professionalreptiles.com/supplies/insect-food/)

Albers' All Purpose Poultry Feed OR
Purina Layena Crumbles

Water Crystal/Gel Alert! -- June 2019
I continue to read significant cautions about water crystals from very experienced keepers. Dehydrated water crystals have been found in the guts of deceased animals. Instead I use a couple layers of moist paper towels to provide moisture for crickets and dubia.

Diatomaceous Earth Alert!
Some chicken feeds contain diatomaceous earth. If diatomaceous earth is in a product, it should be listed on the label!

I only recommend Albers' All Purpose Poultry Feed or Purina Layena Crumbles poultry feed, because they don't contain diatomaceous earth. If you cannot find those in the USA, don't buy poultry feed.

"Diatomaceous earth is a natural antiparasitic for bird flocks. If ingested by insects, diatomaceous earth is fatal. :( The microscopic diatoms cut up insects' insides and cause a nasty death. It is also used topically for insect infestations as it will cut through exoskeletons or soft bodied worms and cause "bleed out." I have not read of anyone accidentally using a chicken feed with it in there and what effects it had on a colony of roaches/crickets/mealworms, et cetera, but I believe better safe than sorry and to warn people of it in case someone wants to use a different brand."

Quoted from hmarie186 -- 1 February 2015

NEVER toss uneaten insects or worms back in with the colony OR feed them to other geckos! This prevents bacteria, parasites, or diseases like cryptosporidosis from spreading. Always freeze (or otherwise destroy) all uneaten insects or worms from any gecko's enclosure.

By following these tips it's easy to keep your crickets alive and thriving 1-2 months past purchase:

Crickets live about 9 weeks. Good ventilation is critical for long lives! Crickets also need lots of space and paper towels that are thoroughly moistened under the faucet daily. Squeeze out excess water!
Keep them at normal room temps (68-74*F, 20-23.3*C).
Unbox your crickets as soon as they reach room temperature.
Use a 56 quart Sterilite plastic bin, a 10 gallon tank, or an extra large Kritter Keeper. [My 56 qt bins measure: 22 inches long x 16 inches deep x 11.75 inches tall (at the top of the bin).]
Place a small scoop of finely ground (or "hammered") Zoo Med's Natural ADULT Bearded Dragon Food, Albers' All Purpose Poultry Feed, Purina Layena Crumbles, or already ground Pro Gutload diet (by Professional Reptiles) on the bottom of the insect container. Also keep some dry diet in shallow ridged lids like Jif peanut butter lids. Cover those lids with a small section of egg flats. :)
Empty crickets into the container.
Place several cardboard (~6) half egg flats on end (vertically), back-to-back, front-to-front, and so on. This method gives crickets adequate space. The more space crickets have, the less they will die from overheating (heat encapsulation effect).
Providing Moisture for Crickets -- Crickets "drink" from damp paper towels.

Place 2 layers of paper towels on top of the egg cartons.
Once daily thoroughly moisten the paper towels under the faucet and squeeze out excess water.
Replace the wet paper towels on top of the egg cartons.
Optional: A ridged lid of wet Eco Earth's coco fiber also keeps crickets hydrated. (Crickets eat dry coco fiber! :()
Add chopped high calcium/low phosphorus leafy greens (collard, mustard, turnip) or pesticide-free dandelion flowers/greens in a small ridged lid next to the cricket food.
I DON'T recommend using water gel crystals at all! Repeatedly I have read about reptiles dying when water gel crystals were found in their guts. These warnings have been shared by respected gecko breeders.

Keep the dry food dry to avoid mold and to keep vitamins and other nutrients viable.
Every so often use a small whisk broom to remove cricket feces and dead crickets.
In addition Armstrong's Crickets suggests lightly roughing up the lower sides of these bins with sandpaper to give crickets more space to hang out.
Cricket water dispensers and spare parts can be purchased from Armstrong's.

To check nutrient levels (calcium, phosphorus, et cetera) of many foods enter the particular food on this United States Department of Agriculture link: Foods List (http://ndb.nal.usda.gov/ndb/search/list)

Elizabeth Freer
09-03-2015, 01:36 AM
Many thanks to GU's acpart (Aliza) for continuing her informative email newsletter Gecko Time.

Gecko Time articles can be found by clicking Archives (http://www.geckotime.com/archives). All Aliza's articles are listed there by date. Each entry is a link to the article. Search for "bio" and find 2 articles.

Includes several articles on Lygodactylus williamsi, one by Maureen Kosinski
Selected Issues:

2 April 2020: Aliza Artz

Click: Living with Crypto - a 3 year update (http://www.geckotime.com/living-with-crypto-3-year-update/)

29 January 2019: Zach Brink

Click: Interview with Zach Brink of Josh's Frogs (http://www.geckotime.com/interview-with-zach-brink-of-joshs-frogs/)

5 June 2018: Zach Bartlett
Here's a different take on housing geckos that combines the best features of a tub and a rack.

Click: Improvements on a Tub (http://www.geckotime.com/improvements-on-a-tub/)

10 Oct 2017: Tony Gamble

Click: How do Geckos Determine Sex? (http://www.geckotime.com/geckos-determine-sex)

25 July 2017: Aliza Arzt
:( "Plague House" is Aliza's personal gecko nightmare with Cryptosporidiosis :(
Click: Plague House: A Breeder's Nightmare (http://www.geckotime.com/plague-house-breeders-nightmare/)

23 May 2017: Aliza Arzt

Click: The Art of Raising Feeder Insects (http://www.geckotime.com/art-raising-feeder-insects/)

14 March 2017: Aliza Arzt

Click: How to Sell Your Geckos Revisited (http://www.geckotime.com/sell-geckos-revisited/)

20 September 2016: Aliza Artz

Click: Interview with Peter Uetz about the Reptile Database (http://www.geckotime.com/interview-peter-uetz-reptile-database)

12 April 2016: Arjan van der Meer

Click: Sourmash for Mealworms (http://www.geckotime.com/sourmash-for-mealworms/)

25 August 2015: Rachel Gratis
For those experienced leopard gecko keepers who wish to provide their leos with enriched environments, check out this article.
Click: Creating a Bioactive Leopard Gecko Setup (http://www.geckotime.com/creating-a-bioactive-leopard-gecko-setup/)

4 August 2015: Aliza Arzt

Click: Found! (http://www.geckotime.com/found)
9 April 2015: Aliza Arzt
Click: A Tale of Three Incubators (http://www.geckotime.com/a-tale-of-three-incubators)

26 March 2015: Gregory Mertz, DVM

Click: Eyelid Dysecdysis in Leopard Geckos (http://www.geckotime.com/eyelid-dysecdysis-in-leopard-geckos/?utm_source=Email+Subscribers&utm_campaign=97e84c2d04-RSS_EMAIL&utm_medium=email&utm_term=0_bd1e75f417-97e84c2d04-418311689)
22 April 2014: Mark D. Finke, PhD

Click: http://www.geckotime.com/nutritional-value-of-commercially-raised-insects/

17 December 2013: Ben Bargen

Enigma syndrome symptoms: circling (walking in a tight circle), stargazing (staring up with neck bent frequently), general clumsiness, falling over on the back when trying to walk.
Click: Enigma Syndrome in Leopard Geckos: An Autosomal Dominant Disorder - Gecko Time - Gecko Time (http://www.geckotime.com/enigma-syndrome/)
29 October 2013: Kai-Uwe Volta, Julie Gibson, & Tom Wood (GU's Aquapimp)

Click: Three to Get Ready: Cat Geckos (Aeluroscalabotes felinus) (http://www.geckotime.com/cat-geckos-aeluroscalabotes)

30 July 2013: Justin Morash, Oliver Kuepper, & Jon Boone

Click: Three to Get Ready: Pachydactylus (http://www.geckotime.com/three-to-get-ready-pachydactylus/)

25 December 2012: Leann Christenson, Tony Terradas, & Julie Bergman

Click: Three to Get Ready: Phelsuma grandis (http://www.geckotime.com/three-to-get-ready-phelsuma-grandis/)

31 July 2012: Cory VanHoose, Derek Vera, & Sarah Dickenson

Click: Three to Get Ready: Paroedura picta (http://www.geckotime.com/three-to-get-ready-paroedura/)

6 March 2012: Ivan Alfonso, DVM

Click: Vitamin A deficiency in Insectivorous Geckos (http://www.geckotime.com/vitamin-a-deficiency-in-leopard-geckos/)

27 December 2011: Aliza Arzt

Click: How I Got Rid of Grain Mites (http://www.geckotime.com/how-i-got-rid-of-grain-mites/)

24 May 2011: Aliza Arzt

Click: The Yearly Cycle with Geckos (http://www.geckotime.com/the-yearly-cycle-with-geckos)

9 November 2010: Laney Simmons with Ivan Alfonso, DVM

Click: The Scoop on Poop (http://www.geckotime.com/the-scoop-on-poop)

13 April 2010: Matthew Kammerer

Click: Beginner Breeder Basics: Comparing Incubation Mediums (]http://www.geckotime.com/beginner-breeder-basics-comparing-incubation-mediums/)

20 April 2009: ProGeckos (Cody Castellanos) (Professional Reptiles' Pro Gutload Dry Insect Diet)

Click: Breeding Superworms: A Guide to Raising and Breeding Superworms (http://www.geckotime.com/how-to-breed-superworms/)

Elizabeth Freer
10-15-2015, 11:45 PM
36538 36539 36577

"I found the container in my cabinet within the pile of containers I do not use to store food. I found a great sale on decorative rocks at Michael's! Got some DAP 100% silicone (aquarium safe of course), glued them sumbich's on, added a few festive flower arrangement leaves and BOOM, leo Ziggy approved. He loves that container more than his coke box I had cut up for him.

The DAP tube recommends 24-48 hours for curing and for letting the fumes dissipate."

Visuals of the entire process: http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/do-it-yourself-diy-/79642-revamping-food-storage-containers.html#post452086

Scroll to post #28 in this thread: http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/leopard-geckos-general-info-intros-and-pics/78431-post-found-reptile-3.html

Elizabeth Freer
10-16-2015, 10:44 PM
Click: http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/leopard-geckos-food-and-feeding-issues-/78860-females-arent-eating-picky.html

Elizabeth Freer
10-21-2015, 03:50 PM
(1) Spyder Robotics thermostats including the Intro ($99) and the Intro+ ($109)

(2) HabiStat "pulse proportional" thermostats

Click: Habistat Pulse-Proportional Thermostat: Amazon.co.uk: Pet Supplies (http://www.amazon.co.uk/Habistat-CHT020-Pulse-Proportional-Thermostat/dp/B002SUF6RW)

Click: Thermostats (http://www.eurorep.co.uk/heating/thermostats)

"The lights on the front flash at different rates indicating the power being pulsed to the appliance is maintaining a constant temperature. During the day mine flash on/off at a ratio of 50/50 and as the temperature slowly drops at night they flash more regularly. In either case the temperatures are maintained. I measure them with two different thermometers and verify a couple of times each day with an handheld temp gun.

"I use two in the same Large Medium Exo Terra Terrarium (36 x 18 x 18 inches), one for my UTH (11 x 17 inches) and one for my CHE (150 watts) for my leopard gecko. Each one cost 40 GBPs so about 62 USDs or so, though it may very well be possible to find them cheaper. I bought a lot from one online store so got them from there while buying other products - Swell Reptiles."

"Basically these stats (once you tell them what temp you want) pulse only the electricity needed to maintain that exact temperature and no more or no less. That is different from being either on full power until 3 >/< degrees over and then off until 3 >/< under. A pulse proportional stat is reportedly ideal for things like CHEs. It extends their lifespan enormously but basically it is designed to offer a more constant temperature with little to no fluctuation."

Thanks to GU's Zux/Shane for his comments. :)

Elizabeth Freer
10-27-2015, 01:18 AM
JIMI's setup for her leo Theseus:

"I used ideas from post 60a as well and adapted them to my own viv. It's working very well for me. I have a heat cable sandwiched between two tiles and ventilated the space between the two tiles using 4 rubber feet I had left over from another UTH. I elevated the tiles using 4 glass cups and put decorative pebbles inside to make them look nicer. It just took a little creativity. :)"



Scroll below to post 3 for JIMI's info.

Click: http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/leopard-geckos-husbandry-housing-and-heating/79712-heat-mat-wooden-viv.html?highlight=JIMI

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7 September 2016 update:

"The raised platform has actually worked out pretty well for me! Like mecoat's leo, my leo Theseus really likes the dark space underneath. The ambient temperature underneath the platform is a couple degrees warmer than the cool side, so it gives him another option besides the 75F cool side. I use 18" x 18" (46 cm x 46 cm) porcelain tiles (less porous), which are a little bit more than 1/3 of the length of the enclosure. I attached a reptile heat cable underneath the top tile with foil tape that I've arranged so that part of the tile is in the 88-90F range and the other portion gives me temperatures around 86-88F. Using only the top tile, I found that the heat cable gave me some cold spots so I added the second tile to help insulate and distribute the heat more evenly across the tiles.

"I hope that was helpful and good luck with your new leo!"

Elizabeth Freer
11-10-2015, 06:24 AM
Repashy's RescueCal+ contains both calcium and magnesium.

Repashy's RescueCal+ instructions:
Liquid Calcium Supplement


"Our RescueCal + is a highly bio available and concentrated liquid calcium (when dissolved in water) supplement fortified with magnesium.

INFORMATION: A highly bio available and highly concentrated Liquid Calcium supplement (once dissolved in water) with added Magnesium and Electrolytes used to supplement animals with low blood calcium levels as a result of Calcium and/or Vitamin D deficiency. The only liquid Calcium on the market with added Magnesium (10:1 ratio).

INGREDIENTS: Calcium Lactate Gluconate, Magnesium Lactate, Sucrose, Potassium Citrate, Malic Acid, Sodium Chloride, Potassium Sorbate (preservative). Analysis (Dry): Calcium 8.4%, Magnesium .825%, Sodium .32%, Potassium .23%, Chloride .34%, Sucrose 14%.

Analysis (when mixed to directions): Sucrose 40 mg / mL, Calcium 25 mg / mL, Magnesium 2.5 mg / mL, Sodium 1mg / mL, Potassium .7mg / mL, Chloride .1 mg / mL.

Usage: Can be added to feed (as solution, or dry), water, syringe fed, or dropped into mouth. Use as prescribed by your Veterinarian. For oral use only. Solution is not injectable. Once mixed, solution should be discarded after 3 months.

Tips: 1 mL = 1 cc = 20 drops.

DIRECTIONS: This product is designed to be mixed into a 30% solution. (3 g / 10 mL, 30 g / 100 mL, 300 g / L). You can mix only what you need but amounts less than 100 mL will require very accurate measurement. YOU WILL NEED A SCALE TO USE THIS PRODUCT ACCURATELY. Add half total desired volume of water to container, then add weighed amount of RescueCal + to water while stirring, and then top off water to desired volume. It can take up to 30 minutes for the minerals to fully dissolve in water. Starting with HOT water will decrease this time but is not necessary.

Refrigeration will extend freshness


Elizabeth Freer
11-14-2015, 05:48 AM
Exo Terra : Light Cycle Unit / Electronic Dimming Terrarium Lamp Controller (http://www.exo-terra.com/en/products/light_cycle_unit.php)

/\ "The unit above is the one I purchased and what I am considering repurchasing. I'd use it with a 15 watt Reptisun 5.0 UVB fluorescent tube. I was previously using a 15 watt Repti Glo 2.0 bulb, but to ensure that he was synthesizing D3 without the help of any supplement containing D3 cricket4u suggested that I switch to a stronger bulb. The dimensions of his vivarium are 48"l x 21"w x 24"h. The heated tile that the strip is positioned above is about 15" below the lamp and he has a raised tile that gets him about 5" closer."

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14 November 2015:

"Unfortunately, I'm currently not using UVB lighting in my enclosure right now. You might recall that I purchased the Exo Terra light unit in attempts to find a new position for the tube, but when I received it the unit was not functional. :? I haven't purchased another unit yet, but I plan to hopefully soon. I've been looking into other options. I've been having a hard time finding dimmable units available here in the US! (if anyone is aware of any please let me know! :biggrin:)

"In the period that I did use it though, I did notice my leo make use of the light. I have a plant with broad leaves positioned near the strip and I frequently found him underneath it with his head and most of his body in the shade, but with some also exposed to the light. He has plenty of other hide options besides this plant. Even without the light I still catch him under this plant on occasion. Other ways he'd have some exposure to the light was by leaving some of his tail sticking out of the hide as he slept. He was eating very well, had regular bowel movements, and I think I also noticed an improvement in his activity levels and a brighter color.

"I agree, I don't think that it is a good idea to use a UVB light in a small tank, especially combined with a supplement containing vitamin D3. I personally prefer to use UVB because he has plenty of areas to completely escape the rays if he wishes to. It's weird that the vet suggested using UVB; I think he should have at least gone over bulb strength and proper use because serious damage can be caused by improper use and the dangerous bulbs that are available right now."

Elizabeth Freer
12-09-2015, 07:07 AM
PDF written in 2010: A Fresh Look at Metabolic Bone Diseases in Reptiles and Amphibians......Eric Klaphake, DVM (https://lookaside.fbsbx.com/file/A-Fresh-Look-at-Metabolic-Bone-Diseases-in-Reptiles-and-Amphibians.pdf?token=AWy9bOPWiJjGtuSazk3TZ2Orn5so6 enyCbCVZEAQPtjN0LdGepnbGo2VALSHZ2ARj6HCMXzV6aZqKOi 91e5x9DaZh-ZMYDQtARwIg0v5nAJRv0m8_YuvcF72wlaogZotPvv89yVEZTWi k6vgPI0V1ym1)

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RyoDai89's leopard gecko Boomie rehabbing

Before: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YEkzd0Z5RMY

December 2015: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3iNDSmdhWSs

Boomie walks considerably "taller" than before. :D

Thread: http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/leopard-geckos-health-and-diseases-/78338-leo-acting-strange.html

DiscoverLight's leopard gecko rehabbed

December 2015: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7Mvgsd25PI8 This video has been removed.

Thread: http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/leopard-geckos-general-info-intros-and-pics/79647-rescued-gecko-progress-2.html#post455648

DiscoverLight left pure calcium carbonate in a dish 24/7. She says that "The leo practically licked her calcium dish clean for the few months I've had her so it's gotten better. :)"

In addition DiscoverLight dusted some prey with calcium + D3. I hope to find out which brand.

Elizabeth Freer
12-22-2015, 01:30 AM
Authors: Thomas H. Boyer, DVM, DABVP (Reptile & Amphibian Practice); Michael M. Garner, DVM, DACVP; Drury R. Reavill, DVM, DABVP (Avian); DACVP; Zachary J. Steffes, DVM.

This is conference note is from the 2015 Pacific Veterinary Conference.

Click: https://newcms.eventkaddy.net/event_data/60/session_files/AV013_Conference_Note_jjacobs_cvma.net_AV013BOYERL eopardGeckoDiseasesandCare_20150512213140.pdf

"This article was previously published and used with permission. See Boyer T, Garner M, Reavill D, Steffes Z. Common problems of leopard geckos (Eublepharis macularius). Proc ARAV. 2014:117–125, for references and full article."

Thanks to Susan Kaisaki's share (leo Poppy's keeper).

Elizabeth Freer
01-04-2016, 05:05 AM
Click: http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/leopard-geckos-health-and-diseases-/80016-leopard-gecko-diet-3.html

"Beware, not all filtered water is as good as you'd think. Some types of ion exchange filters soften water by "trading" chemicals to soften water. Honestly, most hard water can be softened just by boiling it."

post 23:
"I believe hard vs soft water is really the wrong discussion to have as it relates to leopard gecko health.

"Water that is considered hard contains higher levels of calcium and magnesium salts than that which is considered soft. It should be noted that that these salts are minerals which we strive to keep in the diets of our pets. I don't use any softening techniques for my pets. I'll explain why a bit later.

"There are actually two kinds of hardness: carbonate hardness and permanent hardness. Carbonate hardness is the result of calcium bicarbonate and magnesium bicarbonate salts dissolved in the water. These salts are easily broken down by boiling, resulting in a reduction of the overall hardness of the water. Permanent hardness is the result of sulphate and chloride salts, and these can only be removed by more aggressive softening techniques, such as ion exchange, distillation, or RO/DI (Reverse Osmosis/De-Ionization).

"All three of these softening techniques have their risks. It's important to understand them before considering whether or not to employ them. Ion exchange is performed by passing water through a resinous material rich in sodium and/or potassium to replace the calcium and magnesium ions. The most commonly available ion exchange systems are "softener pillows" which are porous bags of resinous granules designed to either pour water through, or soak in a container of water to be softened. The net effect this has on our pets is alarming. It basically removes essential chemical elements like calcium and replaces them with chemicals which are intended to decrease those vital minerals inside their bodies. In other words, using ion exchange softened water is likely to remove calcium and magnesium from our leos' bodies. I don't know if this effect is sufficient enough to actually cause MBD, but I'm certainly not going to find out the hard way!

"Distilled water and RO/DI water both have largely the same risks. They are so purified that when they are ingested, they may leach nutrients from the tissues they pass through. In other words, the absence of any dissolved compounds in a solution creates an imbalance when it passes through the body of any organism. That imbalance is resolved by robbing dissolved minerals from the body tissue. This can lead to degradation of intestinal walls to the point of causing diarrhea. The same goes for humans. If we drink this ultra-pure water, it will sicken us quickly.

"The first part of the RO/DI process, stand alone Reverse Osmosis, is becoming more common and less costly. It's also less aggressive and probably less detrimental than the other methods.

"My personal preference is to not use any water softening methods. The tap water where I live is quite hard and has been chlorinated at the treatment plant. I use ReptiSafe water conditioner drops to remove any chlorine before pouring tap water into the water bowls. I wash the water bowls once a week with Dawn dish soap. There is no scale building up in the water dishes, but even if there was it's not a problem for our pets. The only other water I use for my pets is for spraying the moist hides. I have store bought spring water on hand which I use to spray many of the plants I keep in my herp room. I use this same water for the moist hides."

I hope this helps!
Todd Sandahl

Elizabeth Freer
01-25-2016, 07:50 PM
Leos can be very skittish. Don't scoop up your leo from above like an eagle would. That's what a predator would do! With your palm facing up, slide your fingers/hand underneath your leopard gecko's belly. Then lift.

Let your leo settle in. He should be eating and pooping regularly before trying this.
When approaching his cage, always speak quietly. Move slowly so as not to startle him.
Avoid sudden movements. They will spook your leo.
Next visit place your hand in the cage palm facing up. See whether he'll walk up to it.
Try that on several different days.
See whether he'll come up and sniff/lick your fingers. Maybe he'll climb on your hand.
If this goes well, with your palm facing up gently slide your fingers underneath his belly and lift him.
Judge your progress by your leo's reaction.
Remember baby steps. Don't rush it.

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mecoat -- Nov 2016

"Start with talking to your leo when you're feeding him, so he recognizes your voice and associates it with food, and non-scary stuff.

"Once he's used to that, add your hand in at the far side of the viv from him, talk at the same time. You may want to try having a mealworm on your hand at this point, so he might feel he'll come for the food.

"Once he's used to that, slowly add your hand closer to him.

"Once he's used to that, he may climb on board to get at the mealworm, don't pick him up at this point, let him get used to the fact that the hand isn't scary.

"Once he's used to coming on board, then you can try picking him up. Keep an eye on his body language and breathing rate, if you think he's starting to panic, keep calm yourself and pop him back in the viv near a hide so he can skuttle in there if he wants.

"Always be aware of him, and stay calm. (Beware if he strikes for a mealworm on your hand, try not to jump yourself). Slow and steady for taming."

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Zux -- Jan 2016

"I have gathered the following information from taming a number of different Geckos with wildly varied personalities and tolerances of human contact. This is by no means the only way to do things.

The first thing to remember when trying to tame any Gecko is that they all have distinct personalities. Anything you have read about a particular keeper's experience may or may not apply to you.

None of the taming process is scripted. It is wise for us to be respectful and to go at a pace comfortable for the individual at hand. Forcing things too quickly is likely to have a negative mental impact on the Gecko and, believe it or not, they do remember these (sometimes forever).

With that said there are some rules which you can/should always follow while taming your pet.

When close to your reptile never make sudden/jerky movements. This instantly triggers a flight response in all Geckos irrespective of their personalities. In other words - They all hate it.

When close to your reptile speak at a reasonable volume. Shouting or other loud noises tend to startle and/or stress them out, making them less receptive to handling or anything but hiding. Getting them used to your voice is very useful long term.

When taming any Gecko do so at a time they are normally comfortable being awake and outside of their favorite hides. For example, a Leopard Gecko or African Fat Tail will likely not wish to come to your hand for any reason including food bribes during daylight hours as this is a time they normally stay hidden, compounding the stress of your presence further.

When introducing your hand to the Gecko, and assuming you're not fortunate enough to have a terrarium with front opening doors, then let him/her see the hand coming from as far away as possible. In other words, just don't reach in from the air above the gecko as this is seen by them as predatory behavior and instantly makes them wary!
Keep these rules in mind as you begin the sometimes lengthy process of taming your Gecko. As I hinted at earlier this may take a very short or a very long time (likely somewhere in between) depending upon the Gecko's personality and how careful you are throughout the process.

For example, I have one Leopard Gecko who is now almost 10 months old and will still instantly flee to her hide at the sound of even my voice despite hearing it every night and tolerating handling itself very well. Some of them are just nervous individuals and this in most cases can still be worked with, though there are rare exceptions.

In contrast to that, another Leopard Gecko I have took no taming at all, and I mean none! She came and ate from my hand the first night I placed her in her terrarium. The next morning she instantly crawled onto my hand, up my arm, and out of her environment. I have yet to see a single sign of fear months later. No matter what happens even her breathing doesn't elevate.

My point is that Geckos can be vastly different even with the exact same care from the owner. Don't worry if things do not go as quickly as you'd like. Some things, as with humans, take time.

Follow, then repeat, these steps one by one until your Gecko is totally OK with each of them.

Step 1: After you have given the Gecko one to two weeks to settle in and begin functioning normally, begin to familiarize them with your sight and sound. Sit by the tank when you know they can see you and talk to them, a little softly but not too far from what they are going to hear daily from now on. This will help your new pet realize you are not there to hunt them. Do this at night as often and for as long as you have time. A friend of mine studies and reads books aloud next to his African Fat Tail Gecko's terrarium.

Step 2: Now that your Gecko is used to your presence, get him/her used to your smell and your hand. Begin by slowly placing your hand (palm down) on the floor of the terrarium. See if they will come to investigate. This may take a long time. If this isn't working or stopped working, move your hand to the door of the hide. Wait for them to come and investigate. Position your hand so that if your Gecko wishes to leave its hide it must walk across your hand. I have yet to see a gecko that, without due patience, won't come and at least look at your hand to see what it is. They are naturally curious. However, please note that some may take significantly longer than others to show any interest. Patience WILL be required. Getting the Gecko to realize that your hand is absolutely zero threat to them is your aim. Developing real trust with your hand enables further taming throughout the next stages. It's highly advisable but not a prerequisite to wait until the Gecko walks onto your hand by itself before moving forward with the next steps.

Step 3: Once your Gecko has no fear of walking onto your hand, slowly lift it off the ground. Do this slowly. Only lift it a couple of inches at first before slowly placing it back down. This allows the Gecko to get used to the sensation.

Step 4: The next step is some short hand walking. Once your gecko is on your hand lift it up. Slowly place your second hand in front of your Gecko as it begins to try to walk off the lifted hand. Judge your Gecko's comfort level by the speed at which it walks. If it slowly ambles from hand to hand continue this for 30 seconds or so. Otherwise, as soon as it begins to run, carefully lower your hand and place the gecko back on the ground in a secure spot. Repeat this until you can get the Gecko to calmly walk between the hands at least 10 times. At first the Gecko may not even like walking once, but this will improve with time.

Step 5: Next up is getting the Gecko used to not just your hand, but to your touch. Once your Gecko is comfortable climbing on and over your hand, start very slowly touching it. I gently stroke its side with a finger, because that's the place it would be lifted up from when it comes to handling. Generally speaking, once your Gecko is used to your hand and sees your touch coming, it won't react badly to very light contact. Repeat this until you can tell that the Gecko is not frightened by touch. Try different areas such as the back and top of the head. Always be gentle and avoid the tail. Mistakes here can push taming backwards, so pay attention and be gentle.

Step 6: The next and final step is picking up your Gecko. Note I did not say grabbing your Gecko! That isn't and never will be something I suggest doing, no matter the situation.

Using as many fingers as the space between your Gecko's legs allow, very gently push your fingers underneath his/her belly while doing the same with your thumb from the other side. If you're doing this while they are laying down, make sure that you do not pinch his/her skin. With your fingers and thumb under the belly supporting your Gecko, gently lift the Gecko out of the vivarium.
So that covers the basics. Once you have gone through all of these stages and allowed a sufficient amount of time within each for your gecko to become accustomed the the new experiences, it becomes a matter of repetition in order to fully tame your Gecko.

As a final note I can't stress enough the importance of patience and of trying to look at things from their point of view. Rushing things like this with reptiles only has negative consequences on their long term tolerance to handling and to people in general.

Be aware when your Gecko is not happy or feeling scared. Quick pulsing of the throat almost always indicates increased fear! Extra care should be taken when your Gecko is feeling this way. Likewise when they move in sudden bursts and stay deathly still between those they are behaving defensively and shouldn't be stressed further. If you are somewhat informed as to how they normally move and act, you can make more effective decisions on how you behave around them and minimize the negative experiences they associate you with.

Good Luck"

Elizabeth Freer
02-09-2016, 04:40 AM
Use Zoo Med's Repti Calcium with D3 at 1 feeding per week. Lightly dust it on most every insect at that feeding.
Use plain precipitated calcium carbonate at 1 feeding per week. Lightly dust it on crickets or dubia. Precipitated calcium carbonate is purer than oyster shell calcium. The NOW brand sold in health foods stores is ideal.
Use Zoo Med's ReptiVite multivitamins withOUT D3 at 1 feeding per week. Lightly dust it on most every insect at that feeding.

These schedules depend upon feeding a good quality dry diet to your insects and worms 24/7. Finely grind Zoo Med's Natural ADULT Bearded Dragon Food (or an equivalent high quality dry diet) to feed the bugs and worms. That covers the basics. Then supplement this 24/7 dry diet occasionally with high calcium, low phosphorus, leafy greens: collard, mustard, and turnip greens, and pesticide-free dandelion flowers and greens. Vary your leopard gecko's diet. Crickets, Blaptica dubia, hornworms, Phoenix worms, and silkworms are all good.

Nutritional Comparisons of Insects & Worms

Feeder Chart #1 (Mark Finke, PhD) -- Click: http://www.geckotime.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/04/table-large.png

Feeder Chart #2 (Finke + DubiaRoaches.com)
(click to enlarge)

Weekly Schedule 124 for Leopard Geckos 0-12 months old
(withOUT UVB)

Early stage metabolic bone disease (MBD) symptoms include uneven (lopsided) gait, walking on one or both "elbows", bowed limbs, belly dragging, and an underbite.

The Reptile Supply Company based in Lodi, California stocks Zoo Med's ReptiVite multivitamins withOUT D3.

46018 + 46017 + 46016 OR 46015
(click to enlarge)

Feed lightly dusted prey 3x per week.

Monday > > crickets or dubia lightly dusted with Zoo Med's Repti Calcium with D3
Tuesday > > mealworms, superworms, or black soldier fly larvae (Phoenix worms) > > no dusting
Wednesday > > crickets or dubia lightly dusted with pure precipitated calcium carbonate withOUT D3 (Zoo Med's Repti Calcium or NOW human brand calcium)
Thursday > > mealworms, superworms, or black soldier fly larvae (Phoenix worms) > > no dusting
Friday > > crickets or dubia lightly dusted with Zoo Med's ReptiVite multivitamins withOUT D3
Saturday > > mealworms, superworms, or black soldier fly larvae (Phoenix worms) > > no dusting
Sunday > > no food or free choice > > no dusting

Elizabeth Freer
03-20-2016, 07:12 PM
Here goes:

Weekly Schedule 125 for leopard geckos 12-18 months old
(withOUT UVB)

Early stage metabolic bone disease (MBD) symptoms include uneven (lopsided) gait, walking on one or both "elbows", bowed limbs, belly dragging, and an underbite.

The Reptile Supply Company based in Lodi, California stocks Zoo Med's ReptiVite multivitamins withOUT D3.

Powdered supplement recommendations for leopard geckos 12-18 months old depend upon how much your leo has grown thus far and whether he/she is walking strongly. Leopard geckos usually reach maximum size at about 18 months old.

46824 + 46825 + 46826 OR 46823
(click to enlarge)

Feed lightly dusted prey 3x per week.

Monday > > crickets or dubia lightly dusted with Zoo Med's Repti Calcium with D3
Wednesday > > crickets or dubia lightly dusted with pure precipitated calcium carbonate withOUT D3 (Zoo Med's Repti Calcium or NOW human brand calcium)
Friday > > crickets or dubia lightly dusted with Zoo Med's ReptiVite multivitamins withOUT D3
Saturday > > mealworms, superworms, or black soldier fly larvae (Phoenix worms) >> no dusting

Elizabeth Freer
06-07-2016, 05:52 AM
If a leo is doing well at 18 mo, here's the Feeding & Supplement Schedule I recommend next:

Use Zoo Med's Repti Calcium with D3 at 1 feeding per week. Lightly dust it on most every insect at that feeding.
Use Zoo Med's ReptiVite multivitamins withOUT D3 at 1 feeding per week. Lightly dust it on most every insect at that feeding.
These schedules depend upon feeding a good quality dry diet to your insects and worms 24/7. Finely grind Zoo Med's Natural ADULT Bearded Dragon Food (or an equivalent high quality dry diet) to feed the bugs and worms. That covers the basics. Then supplement this 24/7 dry diet occasionally with high calcium, low phosphorus, leafy greens: collard, mustard, and turnip greens, and pesticide-free dandelion flowers and greens. Vary your leopard gecko's diet. Crickets, Blaptica dubia, hornworms, Phoenix worms, and silkworms are all good.

Nutritional Comparisons of Insects & Worms

Feeder Chart #1 (Mark Finke, PhD) -- Click: http://www.geckotime.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/04/table-large.png
Feeder Chart #2 (Mark Finke, PhD + DubiaRoaches.com)
(click to enlarge)

Weekly Schedule 126 for Leopard Geckos 18 months old +(withOUT UVB)

Early stage metabolic bone disease (MBD) symptoms include uneven (lopsided) gait, walking on one or both "elbows", bowed limbs, belly dragging, and an underbite.

The Reptile Supply Company based in Lodi, California stocks Zoo Med's ReptiVite multivitamins withOUT D3.

46019 + 46020
(click to enlarge)

Monday > > crickets or dubia lightly dusted with Zoo Med's Repti Calcium with D3
Thursday > > crickets or dubia lightly dusted with Zoo Med's ReptiVite multivitamins withOUT D3
Saturday > > Optional: mealworms, superworms, or black soldier fly larvae (Phoenix worms) > > no dusting

Elizabeth Freer
07-15-2016, 10:35 AM
"OK, so there are myriad reasons to keep every Gecko regardless of sex in separate enclosures.

They gain absolutely nothing from cohabiting as they are solitary creatures in the wild. If we force them to cohabitate they quickly establish an order of dominance within the group and have extremely subtle ways of communicating with one another to maintain this. One example of this would be the 'stacking' behavior when sleeping, often perceived by humans as cuddling.

Recent evidence coupled with more understanding surrounding their complex behaviors suggests even females appear far more content and thrive far better when they are given their own territory. I feel very strongly they deserve this anyway!

In answer to your question about the male constantly breeding: yes, he absolutely will pester the females nightly throughout the year, further stressing those who are already forced to live in a group. It is impossible for you to know who he pesters to breed and how badly without keeping 24/7 watch.

I could go on for a month about how many reasons there are to never house any Gecko together unless during breeding. I cannot stress enough if it is possible for you to house each Gecko separately you absolutely should! They will be exponentially happier, even if that is hard or impossible for us to perceive."

- Shane

Elizabeth Freer
08-16-2016, 02:05 PM
For the thread click: http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/leopard-geckos-husbandry-housing-and-heating/81734-natural-history-biology-eublepharis-macularius.html

The post itself:
"Interesting first hand field experience with leopard geckos. This should help one understand why they do what they do (and don't do), as well as give some insight into their natural environment, making it easy to figure out the type of setup they will thrive in.

You can read it online or download the PDF. The PDF includes pictures of their natural habitat, wild geckos, and diagrams of their typical resting places (burrows). There are a few minor rough spots in translation, but nothing that will make things difficult to understand.

*Please don't comment on the persecution section. It's a cultural thing, not relevant here, so leave it out of any discussion. We don't want to risk starting anything nasty.*

Natural history and biology of Eublepharis macularius
Muhammad Sharif Khan
Herpetological Laboratory
Click: morphology and ecology of leopard gecko (E. macularious) from pakistan | muhammad S khan - Academia.edu (http://www.academia.edu/10702382/morphology_and_ecology_of_leopard_gecko_E._macular ious_from_pakistan)

Info about the author, which shows he's not a fly-by-night kind of guy, he knows what he's talking about: Muhammad Sharif Khan has a PhD in Zoology. He taught at Talimul Islam College from 1963 to 1999. He was Director of Herpetological Laboratory, 15/6 Darul Sadar N. Rabwah, Punjab, Pakistan. His research included taxonomy, development, and zoogeography of amphibians and reptiles of Pakistan. He worked on feeding ecology of amphibian tadpoles. He has written several research papers and two books in Urdu. He has collected widely in Pakistan and has photographed and described several new species of frogs, lizards, and snakes from Pakistan.

Special interests: Amphibians and reptiles of Pakistan.

Click: Muhammad Sharif Khan (http://calphotos.berkeley.edu/cgi/photographer_query?where-name_full=Muhammad+Sharif+Khan&one=T)"

Elizabeth Freer
09-04-2016, 09:52 PM
work in progress......

Click: Reptile Lighting Information (http://www.reptilesmagazine.com/Reptile-Health/Habitats-Care/Reptile-Lighting-Information/)

On this thread especially read posts #40 through post #44.
Click: http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/n00b-central/56996-night-light-answer-please-4.html

Elizabeth Freer
09-26-2016, 02:42 AM
Click: http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/leopard-geckos-general-info-intros-and-pics/81931-custom-built-leo-terrarium.html

Elizabeth Freer
11-01-2016, 10:30 PM
Here's a classy incubator built by Jake Schoen in October 2016.


Click: http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/do-it-yourself-diy-/82085-diy-incubator.html

Elizabeth Freer
12-14-2016, 05:38 PM
I use these powdered supplements for my geckos.

Zoo Med's Repti Calcium with D3
Zoo Med's ReptiVite multivitamins without D3 (The Reptile Supply Company based in Sacramento, California carries ReptiVite without D3. Amazon carries it too.)
NOW brand or Zoo Med's Repti Calcium (without D3) = pure precipitated calcium carbonate
+ Shaved cuttle bone in powder and in chunks for mature female Cyrtodactylus peguensis zebraicus always, even when they are only producing infertile eggs. Even infertile eggs deplete the body of calcium. :( Just shave the powder OFF the bone/shell backing. Do not shave the "bone" itself.
I recommend the above supplements for many reasons.

Some vitamins (A, D, E, & K, for example) are fat soluble. They stick around a longer time and don't need to be taken daily or at every feeding.
Vitamin C and the B vitamins are water soluble. They are excreted in urine.
Some reptile multivitamins (Rep Cal's Herptivite, Exo Terra's multivitamin, others) only contain pro-formed vitamin A (beta carotene). It's been proven that lizards need a wee bit of pre-formed vitamin A acetate (retinol) in order to metabolize beta carotene.
As your gecko grows, she will eat larger and larger crickets. Then, when you dust, she'll naturally be getting more supplements per cricket.
Zoo Med's ReptiVite™ is highly recommended by Scott Stahl, DVM, the premiere reptile vet.
My vet only recommends a wee pinch of Zoo Med's ReptiVite™ multivitamins at 1 feeding per week.
Phosphorus negatively impacts calcium absorption. The more phosphorus a supplement has, the less any calcium is absorbed by the bones.
Vitamin D3 needs to be taken with food.
Calcium needs vitamin D3 in order to be absorbed. Dusting with plain calcium carbonate without giving vitamin D3 only helps if there is residual D3 inside your gecko.
Excess calcium in the digestive tract can hinder absorption of vitamins A, D, E, & K. That's why I don't recommend keeping plain (no D3) calcium even in a bottle cap inside the enclosure.
Zoo Med's Repti Calcium with D3 contains 22,907 IU/kg, 10,390 IU/pound. Repti Calcium contains "enough" D3.
One schedule isn't good for life. There are actually 3 schedules: 124, 125, & 126.
For geckos 12 months old and younger (and breeding females) add one day of pure calcium.
It's harmful to have vitamin D3 in both the multivitamin and the calcium powder.

~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~

There are subtle reasons I do what I do.

Zoo Med's Repti Calcium with D3 actually contains significantly more calcium per "dose" than does ReptiVite with or without D3 per "dose".

Repti Calcium with D3: 38-43% calcium per dose
ReptiVite: 25-28% calcium per dose
Your gecko gets weekly vitamin D3 without overdoing other multivitamins.
ReptiVite contains phosphorus; Repti Calcium is phosphorus-free.
My recommendations depend upon feeding your crickets a good diet.

Consider using Nutrabol all-in-one multivitamins with a calcium : phosphorus ratio of 46 : 1 along with a pure precipitated calcium carbonate.

~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~

Speaking of which, Dr. Scott Stahl, the premiere reptile vet, highly recommends the ZooMed product, ReptiVite™. Dr. Stahl states: "Originally formulated for zoos, it seems to work better than any other product I've tried including the Repashy supplements."

"My gutload mix includes paprika for Vitamin A. I also include carrot and dandelion greens for their moisture and other vitamins and nutrients. Plant-based is always more assimilable than manufactured supplements."

/\ Thanks to GU's billewicz (Michael) for sharing Dr. Stahl's feedback!

Click: http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/gekko-including-tokay-golden-white-lined-etc/79534-cork-rounds-drying-geckos-feetsies.html#post456690

Elizabeth Freer
12-18-2016, 09:06 AM
Retroactive and long overdue "thank you" for your supplementation schedule, Elizabeth! I have adapted his schedule to match this more closely.

As an update, I did finish the course of antibiotics, and it does not seem to have made Merlin worse. I should have just trusted the vet from the beginning, I guess. It didn't totally fix his eye (still closed/squinty all the time), but the cloudiness did go away.

I also figured it would be a good idea to include a general status report, just for the benefit of anyone else attempting to research what they can expect out of caring for a Leo with gout, and community knowledge.

Time since diagnosis: approximately 2 months.

Medication/Treatment: 0.5 mg allopurinol daily. Most days receives a bath in a 3:1 water to pedialyte mixture, occasionally mixing in cherry extract (have heard this is good for gout on other reptile forums. Vet said he wasn't aware of studies showing its effectiveness, but that it wouldn't hurt).

General Status: Active with a good appetite (almost bit my finger when I was dropping in his cricket earlier). Weight is normal. Feces are normal.

Signs/Symptoms: Definitely consuming more water than normal, which is likely related to the decline in kidney function. The swelling of his limbs has not progressed very noticeably, but there does seem to be greater opacity in certain areas on his underside, such as where the forelegs meet the body. There is decreased mobility of joints. Spends the vast majority of his time on the warm side of his tank, though that may also be due to the fact that it's winter here and I live in a very cold environment, so it sometimes gets cold in my room.

For Samurai Drifter's thread about leopard gecko Merlin click: http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/leopard-geckos-health-and-diseases-/82104-gentamicin-leopard-gecko-gout.html#post468974

RIP Merlin 2001-2017 (Scroll to post 51.)

Click: http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/leopard-geckos-general-info-intros-and-pics/67194-senior-leopard-geckos-10-a-6.html#post469646

Elizabeth Freer
01-24-2017, 09:32 PM
"D3 serves the function of breaking down calcium. While this makes it an essential nutrient, it also means that too much D3 breaks down ALL the calcium, and results in just as severe a calcium deficiency as if your gecko wasn't being given any supplements.

With the schedule you're using, it's possible your Leo has MBD, which is basically bone deformities caused by calcium deficiency. You should not dust with D3 more than about once per week."

Thanks to Samurai Drifter -- 29 January 2017 :)

Click: http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/leopard-geckos-health-and-diseases-/82488-help-lizard-2.html#post470101

Elizabeth Freer
01-29-2017, 09:05 PM
Click: http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/leopard-geckos-health-and-diseases-/82595-leopard-geckos-legs-shake-slightly-walks-supplement-schedule-change.html

~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~

"Hi Elizabeth,

"Yes it is wonderful to see more and more keepers beginning to take heed of advancements in knowledge and experience, and bring their care closer to meeting the most modern standards. The benefits seen in the animals is astounding.

"I have had all the Geckos, and in fact, all species under UVB for approximately 1.5 years now.

"Details Below -

"Species: Leopard Geckos / African Fat Tailed Geckos
Dimensions of enclosures: 48Lx24Wx18H (inches)
Brand and type of bulbs: Arcadia 6% High Output T5 Bulbs
Strength of UVB: 6% UVB providing a UVI of 3-4 at the closest basking spot and slowly decreasing into total shade.
How long UVB is left on during the day?: The Bulbs are now on 12 hours a day, on average, every day, though I feel it is safer to build up to this point slowly, increasing exposure by a couple of minutes per day.

"Species: Bearded Dragons
Dimensions of enclosure: 72Lx36Wx36H (inches)
Brand and type of bulb: Arcadia 14% High Output T5 'Dragon Lamps'
Strength of UVB: 14% UVB providing a UVI of 6 at the closest basking spot and slowly decreasing into total shade.
How long UVB is left on during the day?: The Bulbs are on 12 hours a day on average, every day.

"I listed some of the most common species above which should be of interest to some, I also keep various Chameleon species and can offer some advice based on my experience with those also should anybody wish me to do so.

"Hope that helped, any further questions, do let me know."

~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~

"Hi guys,

"I too have observed this in many Leopard Geckos in captivity.

"It is my feeling that 'mild' symptoms such as these are almost always connected to either a slight under or over supply of one or more vitamins and/or minerals.

"It has been my experience that symptoms like those 'slight shake/shudders' seem to be in some way tied to Calcium provision in the diet and the Geckos capability to absorb and effectively make use of that Calcium. I have absolutely zero scientific evidence to support this however and it is merely a theory of mine.

"When caring for Leopard Geckos, and any Reptile for that matter, it is very difficult for us to provide exactly what they need in terms of vitamins/minerals through supplementation alone, that is usually because we actually have almost no idea what they need and are merely trying to cover the bases in a bid to stave off any potential critical deficiencies.

"There are almost as many opinions on supplementation regimes as there are Leo owners, so I wont comment on those and instead explain what I do for mine.

"All of my Geckos have UVB lighting and thereby self regulate their D3 cycles without any 'synthetic D3' supplementation from me. I dust at every second feeding with a balanced and full spectrum Calcium based multivitamin powder designed for daily or bi-daily re-balancing of insect prey. I also, periodically, provide a small dish of Calcium with Magnesium in the Geckos enclosures, especially for those females who may have been feeding poorly due to ovulation for example (it is worth noting that it these individuals in which I tend to notice the shaky leg in particular, further supporting the theory that it is through a dietary deficiency that this issue arises). The Geckos can almost always correct the symptoms themselves via self regulation of not only their Calcium/Mg levels but their D3 production also.

"If you would like information regarding the products I use in particular, or anything else for that matter, just let me know.

"I hope that might be of some small help to you.

"Thank-you to Elizabeth (yet again) for pointing your thread out to me."

/\ /\ Above quoted information contributed by Zux (Shane) in March 2017

Elizabeth Freer
01-30-2017, 11:59 PM
Click & scroll to post 4 (blondebrowncoat on Inkbird model thermostats):

GU's blondebrown coat states: "I love it! It keeps very true temps, has a max/min customizable threshold, day and night temp settings, and an alarm if temps get out of whack."
Click: http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/leopard-geckos-husbandry-housing-and-heating/82335-noob-inherited-leo.html#post469617

/\ April 2018: Now you can buy a separate additional probe so the Inkbird can be used to monitor 2 separate heat mats.

Amazon: digital thermostats from $20 (Apollo) (Andy Hauser)

Click: GeckoWeb? - Home (http://www.geckoweb.org/)

Click: 10 Fascinating Facts About Crickets (https://www.thoughtco.com/fascinating-facts-about-crickets-4087788)

Click: NEHERP - Vivarium Construction 101 - The most complete vivarium building articles online! (http://www.neherpetoculture.com/vivariumconstruction101)

From GU's winterminute on 18 Jan 2019: re rescue of son's leo stuck in a build-in bookcase for ~90 minutes with outside wall temps ~30*F: "I think she's doing good. Thank you for asking! She's coming out a bit more at night. Last night she waded into her water dish which was funny to watch. I'm glad I got a camera otherwise I'd have no idea what happens when we go to bed. FYI for others, Wyze wireless cams are $25 and great little toys."

"Trace Elements" -- Hilde link (2-18-2013)
The best thing to do is read the actual PDF, get all the details, including diagrams and tables.

from post 5 on this thread -- http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/leopard-geckos-general-info-intros-and-pics/67992-leos-health-issues-setup-question.html

Click: https://www.traceelements.com/EducationalResources/PublishedArticles.aspx

There is no need to have a supply of calcium in the enclosure, the gecko doesn't need big gobs of it to stay healthy. Compare the size of a vitamin/mineral supplement for humans to the size of the person taking it. That small pill can fully supplement a human body. Why would a tiny gecko need a dose of vitamins and/or minerals big enough for a human?
The idea is to "dust" the prey, not ice the bugs like a cake so they look like moving snowmen.

The only way to properly regulate vitamin and mineral intake, calcium in particular, is to only supply it via gutloading and dusting.

Natural Sea Sponges for warm moist hides from Amazon......Geecko123 -- May 2019
Click: https://www.amazon.com/4-Pack-Sponges-Natural-Awesome-Aquatics/dp/B0776JSM5S/ref=pd_rhf_ee_s_cr_simh_0_1/134-1570521-9487633?_encoding=UTF8&pd_rd_i=B0776JSM5S&pd_rd_r=7a55d572-bfd4-4e0e-a371-9a2e3e33fffa&pd_rd_w=b7BSv&pd_rd_wg=4CuR7&pf_rd_p=67aa5820-8762-4202-90ba-881bb99c913c&pf_rd_r=8YNQQK2DXFQTT8QSM60H&psc=1&refRID=8YNQQK2DXFQTT8QSM60H

Solarmeter 6.5R......(EF) -- April 2019
Click: https://www.solarmeter.com/pdfs/6.5R_UV-Index-Interactive.pdf

Terrario para Geckos Leopardo parte: 1 (Leo Enclosure Build: part 1)---shared by Sg612 -- March 2019
Click: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=62Tgm7rdgXs&feature=youtu.be
(post 15 on this bioactive terrarium thread: http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/leopard-geckos-substrates-and-substrate-issues-/86647-bioactive-terrarium-2.html)

Phelsuma standingi care sheet......author: Wally Kern
Click: http://supremegecko.com/phelsuma-standingi

Ultratherm link from Bean Farm's website -- March 2019 (copyright 2005)
Click: https://cdn.shopify.com/s/files/1/0442/8753/files/ultratherm_info_sheet.pdf?4632153124885612981

Exercise performance of reptiles......shared by Hilde -- March 2019 (on this thread: http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/leopard-geckos-health-and-diseases-/86637-leopard-gecko-lazy.html)
Click: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7810376

***"Zoo Med's Lighting Zones Charts"......shared by DrGreatScott -- February 2019
Click: https://zoomed.com/wp-content/uploads/Choosing-Correct-UVB-Lamp-2018-07.pdf


***Pangea's Digital Thermometer with probe......shared by Aliza -- February 2019
need URL

***Zoo Med: "Reptiles & UVB"......shared by Sg612 -- January 2019
Click: https://zoomed.com/wp-content/uploads/Reptiles-and-UVB.pdf

Conversion Kits for Tanks (2.5, 5.5, 10, 20 L/29, 20 tall, & 40 Br)......shared by Aliza -- January 2019

Ventilation can be customized. Just ask.

Ventilation LOW on the cool end and HIGH on the warm end produces good airflow. That can partially be achieved by carefully removing one end and creating a 1/8" or 1/4" inch grid hardware top/screen.
Click: https://store.iheartgeckos.com/

Setting up an 18 x 18 x 24 inch Exo Terra bioactive for Lygodactylus williamsi......shared by Sg612 -- January 2019
Click: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qGhfrrURpZM&feature=youtu.be

***Reptile Lighting Information......Fran Baines, DVM -- January 2019
Click: http://www.reptilesmagazine.com/Reptile-Health/Habitats-Care/Reptile-Lighting-Information/

Post 3 shares +++ info on Herpstat thermostats -- January 2019
Click Jedijon's thread: http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/leopard-geckos-husbandry-housing-and-heating/86367-temperature-control-hot-cold-using-thermostat-timer.html?highlight=Herpstat+thermostats

Captured -- February 2018
Click: https://dubiaroachdepot.com/guidance/dubia-roaches-vs-other-feeder-insects

UVB for AFTs......Pon (with Zux's feedback) -- December 2017
Click & scroll to post http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/african-fat-tailed-geckos-and-other-hemitheconyx/84293-uvb-light-fat-tails-day.html

Good Substrate Mix for AFTs & Plants, & Bug Stuff......ludwig.donn (Zux's feedback on post 2) -- July 2017
Click: http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/naturalistic-vivarium/83406-substrate-mix-african-fat-tails-plants-bug-stuff.html

Another thread's vet suggests an Arcadia 2.4 UVB 8 watt bulb for a 23 x 11 x 10 inch tank + powdered D3 @ 1 feeding per month as back up......LilBobbyD -- October 2017
Click & scroll to UVB lighting posts 1, 19, & 20: http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/leopard-geckos-husbandry-housing-and-heating/83943-uvb-d3-suppliments-2.html

Custom Builds for leos Cecil & Cleo......Seth9999 -- September 2017 (Leo Cecil's 48 x 20 x 12 inch high enclosure)
Click & scroll to posts 42, 43 (Zux), 44, 45: http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/leopard-geckos-husbandry-housing-and-heating/83817-questions.html

Leo Ziggy's Bioactive Enclosure......Jessica Johnson -- August 2017
Click: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=V1S2b893gzI&feature=youtu.be

Phelsuma grandis Freddy & keeper Mariska (Netherlands) Problem began June 2016: Male bit tail off after "minor" injury -- continues to bite stump -- won't let wound heal! -- July -- 2017
Click: http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/day-geckos-phelsuma/83476-help-phelsuma-biting.html#post474898

Phelsuma keeper from Israel: Nika ----> female Phelsuma recovers from sudden death of her cagemate with total redo of enclosure -- July 2017
Click: http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/day-geckos-phelsuma/83426-phelsuma-weak-refuses-eat-laying-infertile-egg-please-help.html

Nika shares cricket ideas as well!
DubiaRoaches.com Feeder Chart combined with Mark Finke's Feeder Chart -- July 2017
Click: The Most Complete Feeder Insect Nutrition Chart | The Reptile Report (http://thereptilereport.com/the-most-complete-feeder-insect-nutrition-chart/)

Eco Earth coco fiber impaction thread -- July 2017
Click: http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/leopard-geckos-health-and-diseases-/83271-urgent-leo-impacted-eco-earth.html

How I Breed Mealworms!......PoppyDear -- June 2017
Click: http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/feeders-food-and-nutrition/83261-breed-mealworms.html

Zoo Med Lighting Chart -- June 2017
Click: https://zoomed.com/wp-content/uploads/Reptile-Lamp-Chart.pdf

Post 3 by PoppyDear -- June 2017
Click: http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/leopard-geckos-food-and-feeding-issues-/83199-trying-gecko-hand-feeding.html

Treating Thermal Burns in Reptiles -- shared by PoppyDear -- April 2017
Click: https://savethereptiles.wordpress.com/2010/01/07/treating-thermal-burns-in-reptiles/

Mark Finke, PhD + DubiaRoaches.com Feeder Chart combo -- March 2017
Click: The Most Complete Feeder Insect Nutrition Chart | The Reptile Report (http://thereptilereport.com/the-most-complete-feeder-insect-nutrition-chart/)

Automated Cricket Dispenser......Jeff92 (Jean-François) -- 13 May 2016
Click: http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/do-it-yourself-diy-/81238-gecko-feeder-automated-cricket-dispenser.html

Zoo Med Excavator Clay Custom Build......swisswiss (Jeff) -- 27 Jan 2016
Click: http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/leopard-geckos-husbandry-housing-and-heating/80283-swisswisss-terrarium.html?highlight=excavator+clay

Self Cleaning Dubia Roach Set Up......kholtme (Kyle Holtmeyer) -- 31 August 2015
Click: http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/feeders-food-and-nutrition/79355-self-cleaning-dubia-roach-set.html

Custom Hexagon top......booth2010 -- March 2015 (On E's Crestie Summary)
Click: http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/do-it-yourself-diy-/77953-screen-cover-hexagon-tank-2.html

A link shared by Hilde -- April 2014
Click: http://www.merckvetmanual.com/management-and-nutrition/nutrition-exotic-and-zoo-animals/nutrition-in-reptiles#v3321842

Pinworms......matt0101 -- 9 Sept 2013 (PoppyDear)
Click: http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/leopard-geckos-health-and-diseases-/71071-pinworms.html

Click 8/30/2017 -- Speeno: http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/leopard-geckos-health-and-diseases-/83707-parasites-worms.html (PoppyDear "5")

Cleaning Reptile Cages......cricket4u (M. Wiseman DVM) -- March 2012
Click: http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/pests-and-diseases/62822-cleaning-reptile-cages.html?highlight=Cleaning+Reptile+Enclosures

Feeder Roaches: Care and Breeding......Ozymandias -- February 2011
Click: http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/feeders-food-and-nutrition/53949-feeder-roaches-care-breeding.html

Elizabeth Freer
02-05-2017, 12:05 PM
Available from LightYourReptiles.com in the USA and from Swell Reptiles in the UK.

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August 2017 comments from Zux (Shane) regarding Arcadia EarthPro's-A multivitamins/multimineral:

"Arcadia EarthPro's-A multivitamin/multi-mineral video illustrates that much of the thinking behind liberal provision of vitamins and minerals in a natural manner is totally safe and something I feel very strongly is the future of supplementation in captivity.

"Relating back to our discussion surrounding Vitamin A provision and my thoughts surrounding liberal provision of 'the building blocks' of such in the form of carotenoids: The science team behind the product is confident that, in mimicking wild-like provision, any captive reptile irrespective of their requirements for such, can safely self-produce all they would need at any given time."

August 2017 comments from Zux (Shane) regarding Arcadia EarthPro's Calcium-Pro Magnesium supplement:

"The second video explains some of magnesium's role and why it so important to include magnesium along with calcium!

"What is not covered sufficiently, and conveniently relates to our discussion regarding water treatments, is that Mg is found in great quantities in the majority of wild water supplies (among other sources) and something wild reptiles would all have access to in volume. This is a large part of why (along with the obvious lack of synthetic D3) the abundance of Ca in those wild diets never results in issues related to oversupply so often seen or feared in captivity.

"Also of note here is how such provision can help alleviate any concern surrounding liberal provision of Ca in the diet or even within enclosures."
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Arcadia EarthPro's-A's multivitamin/multi-mineral

Click: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Sdr3vR4n9IY
EarthPro-A is a potent dietary supplement that will help supply all the essential vitamins and minerals that a captive exotic needs in a safe and natural way.

Potent carotenoids and bee pollen are used to cater safely for vitamin A and to aid digestion and growth. The product contains NO synthetics that can be easily over or under dosed. Importation from England has been approved by the FDA exclusively for LightYourReptiles.com!

We are excited to be able to offer such a high quality supplement. Especially since it contains bee pollen, a supplement that is naturally occurring in the diet of most reptiles and many amphibians.

Herbivorous reptiles ingest pollen in the plants and flowers they eat. Insectivorous and carnivorous get it either gut loaded in the prey items they eat or on the prey's bodies.

Bee pollen naturally has the following nutrients:

Vitamins: Provitamin A, B-1 Thiamin, B-2 Riboflavin, B-3 Niacin, B-5, B-6 Pyridoxine, B-12 (cyanocobalamine), Pantothenic acid, Vitamin C, F, Vitamin D, Vitamin E, Vitamin H, Vitamin K, Vitamin PP, Folic Acid, Choline, Inositol, Rutin.
Minerals: Calcium, Phosphorus, Potassium, Iron, Copper, Iodine, Zinc, Sulfur, Sodium, Chlorine, Magnesium, Manganese, Molybdenum, Selenium, Boron, Silica, and Titanium.
Other: Amino Acid, Carbohydrates, Fatty Acids, Enzymes & Co-Enzyimes, Fats.
Bee Pollen contains at least 22 amino acids, 18 vitamins, 25 minerals, 59 trace elements, 11 enzymes or co-enzymes, 14 fatty acids, 11 carbohydrates and approximately 25 % protein. Bee pollen is extremely rich in carotenes, which are metabolic precursors of vitamin A. It is also high In B complex and vitamins C, D, E and Lecithin.

Arcadia EarthPro's-A also contains mineral clay, a natural source of minerals along with protein powder for added vitality.

Try Arcadia EarthPro's-A today and you will be hooked. We recommend dusting 2 to 4 times a week with EarthPro-A.

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Arcadia EarthPro's CalciumPro Magnesium

Click: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sRlLcFBhIfg

Elizabeth Freer
02-08-2017, 06:15 AM
Click: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=S2roGuLCEVQ

JTB's link: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=leADmIhe6QI

Consider buying the book mentioned on this video: Reptile & Amphibian Nutrition...by John Courteney-Smith (sp?). I'm not familiar with it.
You're searching for a vitamin A acetate (retinol) source. That's pre-formed vitamin A. Vitamin A acetate helps a lizard metabolize the beta carotene (pro-formed vitamin A) in it's diet. Not the other way around.

Consider dusting crickets and bugs with the finely ground powder of the dry diet to provide vitamin A acetate.
Scroll through my Leo Guidelines for a post(s) by Ivan Alfonso, DVM, about vitamin A and the research. They are there. :)
Click: http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/pests-and-diseases/62405-gecko-time-vitamin-deficiency.html
Use Nutrobal instead of Exo Terra's multivitamin. Nutrobal is an excellent! It contains 46% precipitated calcium carbonate (not oyster shell calcium)! Give your new leo a better chance with Nutrobal! :)

The cricket/dubia diet I use right now is finely ground Zoo Med's Natural Adult Bearded Dragon Food. It's a great blend of ingredients. Compare those ingredients to the Exo Terra food you mention. Occasionally I also use Cricket Crack and 100% alfalfa meal.

Feeders: Feed the highest quality dry diet 24/7 that you can afford to cover the basics.
Supplement that dry diet with high calcium, low phosphorus, veggies (collards, dandelion flowers/greens, mustard, & turnip) greens.
A 24/7 dry diet should not include wheat germ or wheat bran. Wheat germ and wheat bran are way too high in phosphorus!
For juvie and sub-adult leos, males, and non-breeding female leos my schedule suggests adequate calcium "dosages".
Excess calcium in the digestive tract can hinder absorption of vitamins A and D.
"D3 serves the function of breaking down calcium. While this makes it an essential nutrient, it also means that too much D3 breaks down ALL the calcium, and results in just as severe a calcium deficiency as if your gecko wasn't being given any supplements.
You should not dust with D3 more than about once per week. [Samurai Drifter -- Jan 2017]"
TetraMin Fish Flakes contain 47% protein! In 1988 TetraMin Fish Flakes were recommended to me as a cricket diet by a chameleon breeder who also suggested kitten, cat, puppy, dog food samples pet stores give out. All bad news, I believe.

Elizabeth Freer
04-08-2017, 01:21 AM
"Silver Sulfadiazine Cream (SSD) 1% is a soft, white, water-miscible cream containing the antimicrobial agent silver sulfadiazine in micronized form.

SSD is contraindicated if a female is gravid/pregnant. A bactericidal glue exists that might be worth investigating.

"Each gram of SILVADENE Cream 1% contains 10 mg of micronized silver sulfadiazine. The cream vehicle consists of white petrolatum, stearyl alcohol, isopropyl myristate, sorbitan monooleate, polyoxyl 40 stearate, propylene glycol, and water, with methylparaben 0.3% as a preservative. Silvadene cream spreads easily and can be washed off readily with water."

Click & scroll to post 12: http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/leopard-geckos-health-and-diseases-/82715-leo-partial-tail-drop-help-please-2.html?highlight=Yossarian

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Neosporin WITHOUT pain relief contains:

"The active ingredients in Neosporin include neomycin, polymyxin and bacitracin. Inactive ingredients in Neosporin include cocoa butter, cottonseed oil, olive oil, sodium pyruvate, vitamin E and white petrolatum."

Yossarian comments:

"I think the fact that Silvadene is water miscible and easily washed off makes it a far superior choice over antibiotic ointments, even though both contain white petrolatum as part of their base."
"Neosporin or comparable ointment versus silvadene or comparable cream. I'm no expert, but from my investigation I'd go with a product that can be easily washed off as opposed to practically waterproof, as most triple antibiotic ointments are."

Elizabeth Freer
06-18-2017, 06:40 AM
(1) "Elizabeth, I don't know if you've ever visited Sunlan Lighting, but they carry every kind of bulb under the sun, and probably a half dozen or so under Alpha Centauri as well. They're on N. Mississippi, and when you're done there, the whole street is full of interesting shops and places to eat or drink. Z and I often spend many hours in the area after "just" going to Sunlan to get bulbs. Then again, since you live in PDX, you probably already know about the place, but perhaps there are other Portland locals who don't, so I'll list the site address anyway:

Click: Sunlan Lighting - Light bulb Store | Portland, OR (http://sunlanlighting.com/) Thanks to IrishEyes!

Sunlan Lighting, Inc.
3901 N. Mississippi Ave.
Portland, OR 97217
Email: kay@lightlady.com
Tel: 503-281-0453

(2) Lamps Plus in Portland, Oregon also stocks 20 watt halogen pucks.

Lamps Plus #41
8748 SW Hall Blvd.
Portland, Oregon 97223

Elizabeth Freer
07-02-2017, 05:24 AM
Click: https://www.docdroid.net/3UjhaVb/leopard-gecko-enrichment-welfare.pdf

Thanks for sharing, Zux!

Elizabeth Freer
07-04-2017, 06:17 PM
Table of Contents
Leopard Gecko Care Sheet
(work in progress)

Hi ~ This is post 142 on one of GU's Leopard Gecko care sheets. Post 142 is the Table of Contents. All post names/numbers are individually linked. Please use left side side POST numbers.

For suggestions, corrections, and/or updates, kindly contact me via PM. :)

For link 0 click: Leopard Gecko Care Sheet (http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/gecko-care-sheets/55211-leopard-gecko-caresheet-eublepharis-macularius-demo-video-4-jan-2013-update-post302242.html#post302242)

For link 1 click: Leopard Geckos: From Mating to Egg Laying to Incubating......Saskia (http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/gecko-care-sheets/55211-leopard-gecko-caresheet-eublepharis-macularius-demo-video-4-jan-2013-update-post308498.html#post308498)

For link 2 click: Fecal Sample Collection Procedure (http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/gecko-care-sheets/55211-leopard-gecko-caresheet-eublepharis-macularius-demo-video-4-jan-2013-update-post313792.html#post313792)

For link 3 click: Leopard Gecko Genetics: Morph Calculators, et cetera (http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/gecko-care-sheets/55211-leopard-gecko-caresheet-eublepharis-macularius-demo-video-4-jan-2013-update-post322712.html#post322712)

For link 4 click: Humidity Box Assists for Stuck Shed -- updated February 2020 (http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/gecko-care-sheets/55211-leopard-gecko-caresheet-eublepharis-macularius-demo-video-4-jan-2013-update-post325836.html#post325836)

For link 5 click: Black Soldier Fly Larvae (Phoenix/calci/repti worms & nutrigrubs) Care (http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/gecko-care-sheets/55211-leopard-gecko-caresheet-eublepharis-macularius-demo-video-4-jan-2013-update-post329010.html#post329010)

6 ~ (missing)

For link 7 click: Tips for Impaction......PoppyDear -- July 2017 + others (http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/gecko-care-sheets/55211-leopard-gecko-caresheet-eublepharis-macularius-demo-video-4-jan-2013-update-post332965.html#post332965)

For link 8 click: Assist Feeding for Off-Foods Geckos (+ Gerber’s turkey baby food details) (http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/gecko-care-sheets/55211-leopard-gecko-caresheet-eublepharis-macularius-demo-video-4-jan-2013-update-post338820.html#post338820)

For link 9 click: Leopard Gecko Echo: vermiculite in eye --"Pirate Echo" wearing eye patch ;-) (http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/gecko-care-sheets/55211-leopard-gecko-caresheet-eublepharis-macularius-demo-video-4-jan-2013-update-post340036.html#post340036)

For link 10 click: Raising Awareness re “Big Box Quality” Pet Store Leos, et cetera -- May 2015 (http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/gecko-care-sheets/55211-leopard-gecko-caresheet-eublepharis-macularius-demo-video-4-jan-2013-update-post340100.html#post340100)

For link 11 click: Articles: "Dehydration in Geckos" & "Insect Hydration" (http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/gecko-care-sheets/55211-leopard-gecko-caresheet-eublepharis-macularius-demo-video-4-jan-2013-update-2.html#post341026)

For link 12 click: Superworm Feeding Caution (Zophobas morio)......cricket4u – Jan 2012 (http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/gecko-care-sheets/55211-leopard-gecko-caresheet-eublepharis-macularius-demo-video-4-jan-2013-update-2.html#post341038)

For link 13 click: Exemplary Custom Leopard Gecko Habitats: Zelda & Yoshi’smom (Kelly) (http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/gecko-care-sheets/55211-leopard-gecko-caresheet-eublepharis-macularius-demo-video-4-jan-2013-update-2.html#post345974)

For link 14 click: Phosphorus Interactions with Calcium......Melissa Kaplan (http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/gecko-care-sheets/55211-leopard-gecko-caresheet-eublepharis-macularius-demo-video-4-jan-2013-update-2.html#post345975)

For link 15 click: Nutrobal multivitamins contain 150,000 IU/kg D3, et cetera -- June 2017 (http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/gecko-care-sheets/55211-leopard-gecko-caresheet-eublepharis-macularius-demo-video-4-jan-2013-update-2.html#post346544)

For link 16 click: Nekton-Rep vitamins -- April 2016 (http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/gecko-care-sheets/55211-leopard-gecko-caresheet-eublepharis-macularius-demo-video-4-jan-2013-update-2.html#post366275)

For link 17 click: Homemade Incubator Instructions (http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/gecko-care-sheets/55211-leopard-gecko-caresheet-eublepharis-macularius-demo-video-4-jan-2013-update-2.html#post371290)

For link 18 click: Gut Loading Clarifications -- 19 January 2019 update (http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/gecko-care-sheets/55211-leopard-gecko-caresheet-eublepharis-macularius-demo-video-4-jan-2013-update-2.html#post371302)

For link 19 click: Repta+Boost Instructions for Severely Malnourished 1-5 gram Geckos (http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/gecko-care-sheets/55211-leopard-gecko-caresheet-eublepharis-macularius-demo-video-4-jan-2013-update-2.html#post371683)

For link 20 click: Purchasing a Leopard Gecko (http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/gecko-care-sheets/55211-leopard-gecko-caresheet-eublepharis-macularius-demo-video-4-jan-2013-update-2.html#post372647)

For link 21 click: Cryptosporidiosis: disinfecting, Mail Order test, + links (http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/gecko-care-sheets/55211-leopard-gecko-caresheet-eublepharis-macularius-demo-video-4-jan-2013-update-3.html#post372648)

For link 22 click: GU’s Admin Hilde on Calcium, Vitamin A, & D3 Interactions, et cetera: posts 22, 48, 85, ***96: vits + CaCO3*** (http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/gecko-care-sheets/55211-leopard-gecko-caresheet-eublepharis-macularius-demo-video-4-jan-2013-update-3.html#post373069)

For link 23 click: Cricket Care Guidelines I -- with detailed thread (http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/leopard-geckos-food-and-feeding-issues-/68574-cricket-guidelines-post391349.html#post391349)

For link 24 click: Calcium powders with D3: Zoo Med, Rep-Cal, Fluker, Exo Terra, + others (http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/gecko-care-sheets/55211-leopard-gecko-caresheet-eublepharis-macularius-demo-video-4-jan-2013-update-3.html#post374719)

For link 25 click: All about Dandelions + other nutrition links ( http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/gecko-care-sheets/55211-leopard-gecko-caresheet-eublepharis-macularius-demo-video-4-jan-2013-update-3.html#post374995)

For link 26 click: Tony Perkins’ product links for his 4th Grade Class Leo Cleo. Watch Tony’s “Leopard Gecko Care Sheet” YouTube video right at the beginning of this Leo Care Sheet (http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/gecko-care-sheets/55211-leopard-gecko-caresheet-eublepharis-macularius-demo-video-4-jan-2013-update-3.html#post375069)

For link 27 click: Seramis Incubation Medium (http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/gecko-care-sheets/55211-leopard-gecko-caresheet-eublepharis-macularius-demo-video-4-jan-2013-update-3.html#post375086)

For link 28 click: Pros & Cons of Common Substrates......Melissa Kaplan -- Jan 2014 (http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/gecko-care-sheets/55211-leopard-gecko-caresheet-eublepharis-macularius-demo-video-4-jan-2013-update-3.html#post375327)

For link 29 click: Zoo Med's ReptiVite™ multivitamins with Scott Stahl, DVM (http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/gecko-care-sheets/55211-leopard-gecko-caresheet-eublepharis-macularius-demo-video-4-jan-2013-update-3.html#post375846)

For link 30 click: Proven Trap for Catching Escaped Geckos (http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/gecko-care-sheets/55211-leopard-gecko-caresheet-eublepharis-macularius-demo-video-4-jan-2013-update-3.html#post375852)

For link 31 click: Other Custom Leo Cage Furniture (http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/gecko-care-sheets/55211-leopard-gecko-caresheet-eublepharis-macularius-demo-video-4-jan-2013-update-4.html#post375856)

For link 32 click: Sticky Tongue Farms' MINER-ALL (Indoor, Outdoor) & VIT-ALL Supplements (http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/gecko-care-sheets/55211-leopard-gecko-caresheet-eublepharis-macularius-demo-video-4-jan-2013-update-4.html#post375925)

For link 33 click: Hornworm Care Guidelines (http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/leopard-geckos-food-and-feeding-issues-/68585-hornworm-guidelines.html#post391397)

For link 34 click: Powdered Assist Foods: Oxbow’s Carnivore Care, Lafeber's Emeraid for Carnivors, & Fluker's Repta+Boost (http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/gecko-care-sheets/55211-leopard-gecko-caresheet-eublepharis-macularius-demo-video-4-jan-2013-update-4.html#post377825)

For link 35 click: Cleaning Reptile Cages......cricket4u thread inc BBB steam cleaner link -- March 2012 (http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/gecko-care-sheets/55211-leopard-gecko-caresheet-eublepharis-macularius-demo-video-4-jan-2013-update-4.html#post378444)

For link 36 click: Reptile Supply Company (Sacramento, California) Contact: info@ReptileSupplyCo.com "Wholesale Reptile Supplies & Feeders" Products include Cricket Crack, Zoo Med's Natural ADULT Bearded Dragon Food, Zoo Med's ReptiVite multivitamins without D3, Superfoods ABCss: alfalfa meal, bee pollen, chlorella powder, spirulina powder, & strawberry powder (http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/gecko-care-sheets/55211-leopard-gecko-caresheet-eublepharis-macularius-demo-video-4-jan-2013-update-4.html#post380310)

For link 37 click: Necropsy/Histopathology Protocol (http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/gecko-care-sheets/55211-leopard-gecko-caresheet-eublepharis-macularius-demo-video-4-jan-2013-update-4.html#post380313)

For link 38 click: CagesByDesign.com's Internal Mounting Hardware (http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/gecko-care-sheets/55211-leopard-gecko-caresheet-eublepharis-macularius-demo-video-4-jan-2013-update-4.html#post380417)

For link 39 click: 100% Pure/Plain Precipitated Calcium Carbonate Powders (http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/gecko-care-sheets/55211-leopard-gecko-caresheet-eublepharis-macularius-demo-video-4-jan-2013-update-4.html#post381123)

For link 40 click: Exo Terra Enclosures: 36 x 18 x 12 inches tall (http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/gecko-care-sheets/55211-leopard-gecko-caresheet-eublepharis-macularius-demo-video-4-jan-2013-update-4.html#post381133)

For link 41 click: Senior Leos (10 yo & older), Giants & Super Giants, your First Leo (http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/gecko-care-sheets/55211-leopard-gecko-caresheet-eublepharis-macularius-demo-video-4-jan-2013-update-5.html#post381211)

For link 42 click: Repashy Products: Calcium Plus--all-in-one multivitamin, RescueCal+--calcium + magnesium supplement, Bug Burger, Grub Pie (http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/gecko-care-sheets/55211-leopard-gecko-caresheet-eublepharis-macularius-demo-video-4-jan-2013-update-5.html#post382728)

For link 43 click: Zoo Med Under Tank Heat Mats are NOT reusable (http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/gecko-care-sheets/55211-leopard-gecko-caresheet-eublepharis-macularius-demo-video-4-jan-2013-update-5.html#post385922)

For link 44 click: Bean Farm's Flexwatt Heat Tape Info Sheet. Stick on with (heat resistant ?) aluminum tape around the edges & with tape rolls all over (shawn101). Check Aliza’s Nashua tape. (http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/gecko-care-sheets/55211-leopard-gecko-caresheet-eublepharis-macularius-demo-video-4-jan-2013-update-5.html#post385978)

For link 45 click: Mark D. Finke, PhD's, Feeder Insect Research: 2015 & 2005 (http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/gecko-care-sheets/55211-leopard-gecko-caresheet-eublepharis-macularius-demo-video-4-jan-2013-update-5.html#post386655)

For link 46 click: Heat Mats (UTHs): Zoo Med Repti-Therm, Ultratherm, Fluker's, IntelliTemp, & Kane (http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/gecko-care-sheets/55211-leopard-gecko-caresheet-eublepharis-macularius-demo-video-4-jan-2013-update-5.html#post387049)

For link 47 click: Are Waxworms Addictive?......Zux -- July 2017 (http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/gecko-care-sheets/55211-leopard-gecko-caresheet-eublepharis-macularius-demo-video-4-jan-2013-update-5.html#post387739)

For link 48 click: Can plain calcium carbonate be overdosed? (http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/gecko-care-sheets/55211-leopard-gecko-caresheet-eublepharis-macularius-demo-video-4-jan-2013-update-5.html#post388271)

49 ~ (missing)

For link 50 click: Health Questionnaire......revised Feb 2015 (http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/gecko-care-sheets/55211-leopard-gecko-caresheet-eublepharis-macularius-demo-video-4-jan-2013-update-5.html#post389189)

For link 51 click: Leopard Gecko Research......Hilde (http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/gecko-care-sheets/55211-leopard-gecko-caresheet-eublepharis-macularius-demo-video-4-jan-2013-update-6.html#post389314)

For link 52 click: Silkworm Guidelines I (http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/leopard-geckos-food-and-feeding-issues-/68584-silkworm-guidelines.html#post391395)

For link 53 click: Golden Gate Gecko's Bug Slurry...comments by Mark Burgess, DVM (http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/gecko-care-sheets/55211-leopard-gecko-caresheet-eublepharis-macularius-demo-video-4-jan-2013-update-6.html#post389867)

For link 54 click: Miscellaneous Facts about Leopard Geckos (http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/gecko-care-sheets/55211-leopard-gecko-caresheet-eublepharis-macularius-demo-video-4-jan-2013-update-6.html#post389949)

For link 55 click: UVB lighting -- Zoo Med & Arcadia......July 2018 update (http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/gecko-care-sheets/55211-leopard-gecko-caresheet-eublepharis-macularius-demo-video-4-jan-2013-update-6.html#post392006)

For link 56 click: Significantly Increasing Ambient Humidity in a Leo Enclosure...GU's ebross67 (http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/gecko-care-sheets/55211-leopard-gecko-caresheet-eublepharis-macularius-demo-video-4-jan-2013-update-6.html#post392121)

For link 57 click: Harmful Wood for Reptiles (http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/gecko-care-sheets/55211-leopard-gecko-caresheet-eublepharis-macularius-demo-video-4-jan-2013-update-6.html#post393317)

For link 58 click: TetraFauna Supplements -- Tetrafauna's ReptoCal's all-in-one multivitamin has changed. The new label shows different values. (http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/gecko-care-sheets/55211-leopard-gecko-caresheet-eublepharis-macularius-demo-video-4-jan-2013-update-6.html#post394194)

For link 59 click: Thermostats: Hydrofarm's Jump Start MTPRTC, Inkbird, Apollo, & Zilla (http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/gecko-care-sheets/55211-leopard-gecko-caresheet-eublepharis-macularius-demo-video-4-jan-2013-update-6.html#post395033)

For link 60a click: Heating Melamine & Wooden Enclosures: Hilde, mecoat, acpart, JIMI & 60b (post 117) -- continues with JIMI’s leopard gecko Theseus’ enclosure (http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/gecko-care-sheets/55211-leopard-gecko-caresheet-eublepharis-macularius-demo-video-4-jan-2013-update-6.html#post395295)

For link 61 click: Female Leopard Gecko (very slight tremors when walking)......dbott67 + Zux (http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/gecko-care-sheets/55211-leopard-gecko-caresheet-eublepharis-macularius-demo-video-4-jan-2013-update-7.html#post396124)

For link 62 click: Vitamin D/D3 Dosage Research ~ Douglas R. Mader, DVM & Mark Burgess, DVM (http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/gecko-care-sheets/55211-leopard-gecko-caresheet-eublepharis-macularius-demo-video-4-jan-2013-update-7.html#post396571)

For link 63 click: Wooden Enclosures for Leopard Geckos (http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/gecko-care-sheets/55211-leopard-gecko-caresheet-eublepharis-macularius-demo-video-4-jan-2013-update-7.html#post398248)

For link 64 click: Why won't leos chase crickets?......cricket4u -- June 2013 (http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/gecko-care-sheets/55211-leopard-gecko-caresheet-eublepharis-macularius-demo-video-4-jan-2013-update-7.html#post399376)

For link 65 click: Treating Reptile Mites -- needs updating (http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/gecko-care-sheets/55211-leopard-gecko-caresheet-eublepharis-macularius-demo-video-4-jan-2013-update-7.html#post399482)

For link 66 click: Leopard Geckos not eating?......acpart -- 2009 & 2010, cricket4u -- 2013, & kholtme’s sticky -- 2015 (http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/gecko-care-sheets/55211-leopard-gecko-caresheet-eublepharis-macularius-demo-video-4-jan-2013-update-7.html#post400325)

For link 67 click: Cannibalism in Leopard Geckos......Hilde -- March 2013 (+ pdf) (http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/gecko-care-sheets/55211-leopard-gecko-caresheet-eublepharis-macularius-demo-video-4-jan-2013-update-7.html#post400643)

For link 68 click: Enigma Syndrome Information (http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/gecko-care-sheets/55211-leopard-gecko-caresheet-eublepharis-macularius-demo-video-4-jan-2013-update-7.html#post400650")

For link 69 click: Minimum Leopard Gecko Enclosure Dimensions……cricket4u -- July 2013 (http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/gecko-care-sheets/55211-leopard-gecko-caresheet-eublepharis-macularius-demo-video-4-jan-2013-update-7.html#post401103)

For link 70 click: Why are 10 gallon kits inadequate for leopard geckos?......Muffins94 -- Aug 2013 (http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/gecko-care-sheets/55211-leopard-gecko-caresheet-eublepharis-macularius-demo-video-4-jan-2013-update-7.html#post405435)

For link 71 click: The Importance of Regular Fecal Exams (http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/gecko-care-sheets/55211-leopard-gecko-caresheet-eublepharis-macularius-demo-video-4-jan-2013-update-8.html#post406485)

For link 72 click: Three Common Causes of Thin Tail, Anorexia, Lethargy, et cetera (http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/gecko-care-sheets/55211-leopard-gecko-caresheet-eublepharis-macularius-demo-video-4-jan-2013-update-8.html#post406703)

For link 73 click: How to configure heat cables?......kholtme -- Aug 2015 with link (http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/gecko-care-sheets/55211-leopard-gecko-caresheet-eublepharis-macularius-demo-video-4-jan-2013-update-8.html#post409929)

For link 74 click: Pakistan: A Leopard Geckos' Homeland (http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/gecko-care-sheets/55211-leopard-gecko-caresheet-eublepharis-macularius-demo-video-4-jan-2013-update-8.html#post410025)

For link 75 click: Caught!......dbott67's night videos of leo Mushu eating & drinking (http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/gecko-care-sheets/55211-leopard-gecko-caresheet-eublepharis-macularius-demo-video-4-jan-2013-update-8.html#post410354)

For link 76 click: Establishing Photoperiods for Leopard Geckos (http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/gecko-care-sheets/55211-leopard-gecko-caresheet-eublepharis-macularius-demo-video-4-jan-2013-update-8.html#post410514)

For link 77 click: Gecko Multivitamins (http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/gecko-care-sheets/55211-leopard-gecko-caresheet-eublepharis-macularius-demo-video-4-jan-2013-update-8.html#post413862)

For link 78 click: Update pending ----> "Locusts: Nutritional Comments" (http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/gecko-care-sheets/55211-leopard-gecko-caresheet-eublepharis-macularius-demo-video-4-jan-2013-update-8.html#post414072)

For link 79 click: Beneficial "Pests"---natural mite solution: USA & UK links......Elizabeth Freer (http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/gecko-care-sheets/55211-leopard-gecko-caresheet-eublepharis-macularius-demo-video-4-jan-2013-update-9.html#post414268)

For link 80 click: Repashy SuperLoad Insect Gutload Formula (http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/gecko-care-sheets/55211-leopard-gecko-caresheet-eublepharis-macularius-demo-video-4-jan-2013-update-9.html#post414482)

For link 81 (& 87) click: Leopard Gecko Care Sheet (abbreviated) -- March 2020 update (show handout) (http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/gecko-care-sheets/55211-leopard-gecko-caresheet-eublepharis-macularius-demo-video-4-jan-2013-update-9.html#post417435)

For link 82 click: Why does my leo hide all the time - there is hope!......GU's congener329 -- 2014 (http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/gecko-care-sheets/55211-leopard-gecko-caresheet-eublepharis-macularius-demo-video-4-jan-2013-update-9.html#post418658)

For link 83 click: Albers' All Purpose Poultry Feed ( http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/gecko-care-sheets/55211-leopard-gecko-caresheet-eublepharis-macularius-demo-video-4-jan-2013-update-9.html#post419796)

For link 84 click: cricket4u's Customized Leopard Gecko Husbandry (http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/gecko-care-sheets/55211-leopard-gecko-caresheet-eublepharis-macularius-demo-video-4-jan-2013-update-9.html#post422304)

For link 85 click: Vitamin D3 + Calcium = Healthy Reptile Bones (http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/gecko-care-sheets/55211-leopard-gecko-caresheet-eublepharis-macularius-demo-video-4-jan-2013-update-9.html#post424917)

For link 86 click: Nutrition Links......GU's JIMI -- May 2014 (http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/gecko-care-sheets/55211-leopard-gecko-caresheet-eublepharis-macularius-demo-video-4-jan-2013-update-9.html#post424922)

For link 87 click: Leopard Gecko Care Sheet ("bare bones only") -- June 2019 update (http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/gecko-care-sheets/55211-leopard-gecko-caresheet-eublepharis-macularius-demo-video-4-jan-2013-update-9.html#post425040)

For link 88 click: "Assessing Reptile Welfare Using Behavioural Criteria" -- March 2013 (with cricket4u link) (http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/gecko-care-sheets/55211-leopard-gecko-caresheet-eublepharis-macularius-demo-video-4-jan-2013-update-9.html#post425255)

For link 89 click: Reptile Gout......Kenneth Lopez, DVM & others (http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/gecko-care-sheets/55211-leopard-gecko-caresheet-eublepharis-macularius-demo-video-4-jan-2013-update-10.html#post425849)

For link 90 click: Sand Removal Surgery on a Leopard Gecko – LIVE video coverage! (http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/gecko-care-sheets/55211-leopard-gecko-caresheet-eublepharis-macularius-demo-video-4-jan-2013-update-10.html#post426039)

For link 91 click: Articles: "Vitamin D3 & Calcium" & "Vitamin A"......Kenneth Lopez, DVM (http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/gecko-care-sheets/55211-leopard-gecko-caresheet-eublepharis-macularius-demo-video-4-jan-2013-update-10.html#post427024)

For link 92 click: Nutritional Analyses of Feeders charts......Mark Finke, PhD + DubiaRoaches.com (http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/gecko-care-sheets/55211-leopard-gecko-caresheet-eublepharis-macularius-demo-video-4-jan-2013-update-10.html#post428596)

For link 93 click: Springtails......Hilde -- Aug 2014 & CrestedRick -- May 2015 (http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/gecko-care-sheets/55211-leopard-gecko-caresheet-eublepharis-macularius-demo-video-4-jan-2013-update-10.html#post429079)

For link 94 click: Successful Rescue Thread links (http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/gecko-care-sheets/55211-leopard-gecko-caresheet-eublepharis-macularius-demo-video-4-jan-2013-update-10.html#post429132)

For link 95 click: "Vitamin A in Chameleons: Friend or Foe?"......Ivan Alfonso, DVM & Gecko Time article interview (http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/gecko-care-sheets/55211-leopard-gecko-caresheet-eublepharis-macularius-demo-video-4-jan-2013-update-10.html#post431226)

For link 96 click: Supplementation & Diet: bugs, worms, & geckos......Hilde -- July 2014 (http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/gecko-care-sheets/55211-leopard-gecko-caresheet-eublepharis-macularius-demo-video-4-jan-2013-update-10.html#post431911)

For link 97 click: Butterworms: Nutritional Content & Care......Frank Indiviglio, herpetologist (http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/gecko-care-sheets/55211-leopard-gecko-caresheet-eublepharis-macularius-demo-video-4-jan-2013-update-10.html#post432804)

For link 98 click: Common Mealworm & Superworm Dry Diets & Beddings -- Use something else! (http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/gecko-care-sheets/55211-leopard-gecko-caresheet-eublepharis-macularius-demo-video-4-jan-2013-update-10.html#post434185)

For link 99 click: Mealworm & Superworm Tips......acpart, Hilde, & swisswiss -- July 2017 (http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/gecko-care-sheets/55211-leopard-gecko-caresheet-eublepharis-macularius-demo-video-4-jan-2013-update-11.html#post434916)

For link 100 click: Shipping Tips: "UniHeat 72 hour" heat packs & "Cryopak Phase 22" cold packs (http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/gecko-care-sheets/55211-leopard-gecko-caresheet-eublepharis-macularius-demo-video-4-jan-2013-update-11.html#post434950)

For link 101 click: Cork Round Planters......CrestedRick -- June 2014 (http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/gecko-care-sheets/55211-leopard-gecko-caresheet-eublepharis-macularius-demo-video-4-jan-2013-update-11.html#post436023)

For link 102 click: Particulate Substrates & Impaction Cautions for Leopard Geckos! (http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/gecko-care-sheets/55211-leopard-gecko-caresheet-eublepharis-macularius-demo-video-4-jan-2013-update-11.html#post436287)

For link 103 click: Balancing Zoo Med's Repti Calcium with D3 + Zoo Med's Reptivite multivitamins without D3 -- with Scott Stahl, DVM (http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/gecko-care-sheets/55211-leopard-gecko-caresheet-eublepharis-macularius-demo-video-4-jan-2013-update-11.html#post436447)

For link 104 click: Is a hamster ball/wheel good exercise for a leopard gecko? (http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/gecko-care-sheets/55211-leopard-gecko-caresheet-eublepharis-macularius-demo-video-4-jan-2013-update-11.html#post436961)

For link 105 click: Yellow Urates: Potential Causes……DVM feedback -- Jan 2015 (http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/gecko-care-sheets/55211-leopard-gecko-caresheet-eublepharis-macularius-demo-video-4-jan-2013-update-11.html#post437818)

For link 106 click: Under tank heat mats (UTHs): Dimensions versus Wattages (http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/gecko-care-sheets/55211-leopard-gecko-caresheet-eublepharis-macularius-demo-video-4-jan-2013-update-11.html#post438903)

For link 107 click: UVB lighting versus powdered D3 for leopard geckos?......Geckologist.tj (http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/gecko-care-sheets/55211-leopard-gecko-caresheet-eublepharis-macularius-demo-video-4-jan-2013-update-11.html#post440631)

For link 108 click: Ceramic Heat Emitters (CHEs) (http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/gecko-care-sheets/55211-leopard-gecko-caresheet-eublepharis-macularius-demo-video-4-jan-2013-update-11.html#post441282)

For link 109 click: Vionate Powder & Osteo-Form SA Powder (http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/gecko-care-sheets/55211-leopard-gecko-caresheet-eublepharis-macularius-demo-video-4-jan-2013-update-12.html#post442912)

For link 110 click: My ~10.5 yo leo Cha's enclosure tour......Elizabeth Freer -- Jan 2015 (http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/gecko-care-sheets/55211-leopard-gecko-caresheet-eublepharis-macularius-demo-video-4-jan-2013-update-12.html#post443570)

For link 111 click: Repashy's Calcium Plus: vitamin D content + forms of vitamin D......Hilde (http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/gecko-care-sheets/55211-leopard-gecko-caresheet-eublepharis-macularius-demo-video-4-jan-2013-update-12.html#post447690 )

For link 112 click: Updated Cricket Care Guidelines II -- June 2019 (latest version) (http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/gecko-care-sheets/55211-leopard-gecko-caresheet-eublepharis-macularius-demo-video-4-jan-2013-update-12.html#post448826)

For link 113 click: Gecko Time articles……acpart (Aliza Arzt), editor (http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/gecko-care-sheets/55211-leopard-gecko-caresheet-eublepharis-macularius-demo-video-4-jan-2013-update-12.html#post449900)

For link 114 click: Awesome Leo Hides Handmade with River Rocks......GU's JessJohnson87 (http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/gecko-care-sheets/55211-leopard-gecko-caresheet-eublepharis-macularius-demo-video-4-jan-2013-update-12.html#post452047)

For link 115 click: Insights on Ovulating Leopard Geckos......GU's arawn from France -- 2015 (http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/gecko-care-sheets/55211-leopard-gecko-caresheet-eublepharis-macularius-demo-video-4-jan-2013-update-12.html#post452120)

For link 116 click: Proportional Thermostats (http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/gecko-care-sheets/55211-leopard-gecko-caresheet-eublepharis-macularius-demo-video-4-jan-2013-update-13.html#post452460)

For link 117 (& 60a) click: Placement of UTHs & Heat Cables Inside Melamine & Wooden Leo Enclosures (http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/gecko-care-sheets/55211-leopard-gecko-caresheet-eublepharis-macularius-demo-video-4-jan-2013-update-13.html#post452826)

For link 118 click: Calcium + Magnesium: Repashy's RescueCal+ Instructions -- Summer 2015 (http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/gecko-care-sheets/55211-leopard-gecko-caresheet-eublepharis-macularius-demo-video-4-jan-2013-update-13.html#post453687)

For link 119 click: UVB Lighting for Leopard Geckos: Only with ~48 inch + long vivarium......GU’s JIMI (http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/gecko-care-sheets/55211-leopard-gecko-caresheet-eublepharis-macularius-demo-video-4-jan-2013-update-13.html#post453939)

For link 120 click: 2010 Metabolic Bone Disease PDF: Improvement is Possible!!! (http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/gecko-care-sheets/55211-leopard-gecko-caresheet-eublepharis-macularius-demo-video-4-jan-2013-update-13.html#post455663)


For link 121 click: "Leopard Gecko Diseases and Care"......2015 Pacific Veterinary Conference (http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/gecko-care-sheets/55211-leopard-gecko-caresheet-eublepharis-macularius-demo-video-4-jan-2013-update-13.html#post456383)

For link 122 click: Water Treatment Precautions......GU's amsdadtodd (Todd) -- Jan 2016 (http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/gecko-care-sheets/55211-leopard-gecko-caresheet-eublepharis-macularius-demo-video-4-jan-2013-update-13.html#post456938)

For link 123 click: Taming your Leopard Gecko......GU's mecoat, Zux (Shane), & others (http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/gecko-care-sheets/55211-leopard-gecko-caresheet-eublepharis-macularius-demo-video-4-jan-2013-update-13.html#post458330)

For link 124 click: Weekly Feeding & Supplement Schedule 124 for leopard geckos 0-12 months old (http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/gecko-care-sheets/55211-leopard-gecko-caresheet-eublepharis-macularius-demo-video-4-jan-2013-update-13.html#post459052)

For link 125 click: Weekly Feeding & Supplement Schedule 125 for leopard geckos 12-18 months old (http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/gecko-care-sheets/55211-leopard-gecko-caresheet-eublepharis-macularius-demo-video-4-jan-2013-update-13.html#post461514)

For link 126 click: Weekly Feeding & Supplement Schedule 126 for leopard geckos 18 months old + (http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/gecko-care-sheets/55211-leopard-gecko-caresheet-eublepharis-macularius-demo-video-4-jan-2013-update-14.html#post464174)

For link 127 click: Housing Leopard Geckos Alone......GU's Zux (Shane) -- July 2016 (http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/gecko-care-sheets/55211-leopard-gecko-caresheet-eublepharis-macularius-demo-video-4-jan-2013-update-14.html#post465182)

For link 128 click: Natural History & Biology of Eublepharis macularius.....Hilde -- August 2016 (http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/gecko-care-sheets/55211-leopard-gecko-caresheet-eublepharis-macularius-demo-video-4-jan-2013-update-14.html#post466081)

For link 129 click: Geckos' Night Vision (http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/gecko-care-sheets/55211-leopard-gecko-caresheet-eublepharis-macularius-demo-video-4-jan-2013-update-14.html#post466612)

For link 130 click: An Exceptional Custom Built Leo Terrarium!......GU's srm2069 -- Sept 2016 (http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/gecko-care-sheets/55211-leopard-gecko-caresheet-eublepharis-macularius-demo-video-4-jan-2013-update-14.html#post467169)

For link 131 click: DIY Incubator......GU's Black Swamp Reptiles (Jake Schoen) (http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/gecko-care-sheets/55211-leopard-gecko-caresheet-eublepharis-macularius-demo-video-4-jan-2013-update-14.html#post468385)

For link 132 click: Why I use and highly recommend Zoo Med's Repti Calcium with D3 & Zoo Med's ReptiVite multivitamins without D3? (http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/gecko-care-sheets/55211-leopard-gecko-caresheet-eublepharis-macularius-demo-video-4-jan-2013-update-14.html#post469178)

For link 133 click: Leo Merlin's struggles with gout . . . . . . GU's Samurai Drifter -- December 2016 (http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/gecko-care-sheets/55211-leopard-gecko-caresheet-eublepharis-macularius-demo-video-4-jan-2013-update-14.html#post469244)

For link 134 click: Leo Merlin's struggles with gout (continued): Vitamin D3 Overdosage in an Actual Leopard Gecko!......Samurai Drifter -- 2017 threads (http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/gecko-care-sheets/55211-leopard-gecko-caresheet-eublepharis-macularius-demo-video-4-jan-2013-update-14.html#post470036)

For link 135 click: UVB lighting for leos & beardies; shaky leo legs "cure" . . . . . . Zux -- March 2017 (http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/gecko-care-sheets/55211-leopard-gecko-caresheet-eublepharis-macularius-demo-video-4-jan-2013-update-14.html#post470094)

For link 136 click: Important Links (http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/gecko-care-sheets/55211-leopard-gecko-caresheet-eublepharis-macularius-demo-video-4-jan-2013-update-15.html#post470114)

For link 137 click: Arcadia Reptile's EarthPro-A (multivitamin/multi-mineral) & EarthPro Calcium + Magnesium (http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/gecko-care-sheets/55211-leopard-gecko-caresheet-eublepharis-macularius-demo-video-4-jan-2013-update-15.html#post470186)

For link 138 click: More Info -- Feb 2017 (http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/gecko-care-sheets/55211-leopard-gecko-caresheet-eublepharis-macularius-demo-video-4-jan-2013-update-15.html#post470227)

For link 139 click: Silver Sulfadiazine Cream (SSD) 1% . . . . . . Yossarian -- April 2017 (http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/gecko-care-sheets/55211-leopard-gecko-caresheet-eublepharis-macularius-demo-video-4-jan-2013-update-15.html#post471267)

For link 140 click: Portland, Oregon Links for Locals (http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/gecko-care-sheets/55211-leopard-gecko-caresheet-eublepharis-macularius-demo-video-4-jan-2013-update-15.html#post473404)

For link 141 click: Leopard Geckos Respond to 5 Types of Environmental Enrichment......pdf -- 2016 (http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/gecko-care-sheets/55211-leopard-gecko-caresheet-eublepharis-macularius-demo-video-4-jan-2013-update-15.html#post473795)

For link 142 click: Leo Care Sheet Table of Contents (http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/gecko-care-sheets/55211-leopard-gecko-caresheet-eublepharis-macularius-demo-video-4-jan-2013-update-15.html#post473888)

For link 143 click: UVB and Nocturnal Reptiles......Andy Tedder (UK) (http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/gecko-care-sheets/55211-leopard-gecko-caresheet-eublepharis-macularius-demo-video-4-jan-2013-update-15.html#post475415)

For link 144 click: Repashy's Calcium Plus (all-in-one) multivitamin Schedules for Leopard Geckos -- March 2020 update (http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/gecko-care-sheets/55211-leopard-gecko-caresheet-eublepharis-macularius-demo-video-4-jan-2013-update-15.html#post475511)

For link 145 click: Shipping Guidelines for Geckos......Elizabeth Freer -- May 2019 update (http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/gecko-care-sheets/55211-leopard-gecko-caresheet-eublepharis-macularius-demo-video-4-jan-2013-update-15.html#post480106)

For link 146 click: Albey's How to Incubate Leopard Gecko Eggs (http://www.albeysreptiles.com/incubate-eggs.htm)

For link 147 click: UVB for Leopard Geckos and Other Geckos......Dr. Frances M. Baines -- January 2018 (http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/leopard-geckos-husbandry-housing-and-heating/84556-uvb-lighting-debate.html#post480463)

For link 148 click: Gutload Ingredients for Bugs & Worms......thanks to Olimpia -- August 2013 (http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/leopard-geckos-food-and-feeding-issues-/68574-cricket-guidelines-post459059.html#post459059)

For link 149 click: Clinical Effects of Short-term UVB Exposure in Leopard Geckos -- 2015 (http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/gecko-care-sheets/55211-leopard-gecko-caresheet-eublepharis-macularius-demo-video-4-jan-2013-update-16.html#post485446)

For link 150 click: Preventing Diseases in our Leopard Geckos......Elizabeth Freer -- September 2018 (http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/gecko-care-sheets/55211-leopard-gecko-caresheet-eublepharis-macularius-demo-video-4-jan-2013-update-16.html#post486913)

For link 151 click: How much UVB does my reptile need?......Dr. Frances M. Baines,+ -- January 2016 (http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/gecko-care-sheets/55211-leopard-gecko-caresheet-eublepharis-macularius-demo-video-4-jan-2013-update-16.html#post487851)

For link 152 click: Evaluation of β-carotene assimilation in leopard geckos (Eublepharis macularius) -- 2015/2016 research (http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/gecko-care-sheets/55211-leopard-gecko-caresheet-eublepharis-macularius-demo-video-4-jan-2013-update-16.html#post488438)

For link 153 click: Quarantine Recommendations......Elizabeth Freer -- February 2019 (http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/gecko-care-sheets/55211-leopard-gecko-caresheet-eublepharis-macularius-demo-video-4-jan-2013-update-16.html#post490682)

For link 154 click: UVB Weekly Feeding & Supplement Schedule 154 for leopard geckos 0-12 months old (http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/gecko-care-sheets/55211-leopard-gecko-caresheet-eublepharis-macularius-demo-video-4-jan-2013-update-16.html#post492626)

Coming later . . . . . . :)

For link 155 click: UVB Weekly Feeding & Supplement Schedule 155 for leopard geckos 12-18 months old (http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/gecko-care-sheets/55211-leopard-gecko-caresheet-eublepharis-macularius-demo-video-4-jan-2013-update-16.html#post492627)

For link 156 click: UVB Weekly Feeding & Supplement Schedule 156 for leopard geckos 18 months + (http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/gecko-care-sheets/55211-leopard-gecko-caresheet-eublepharis-macularius-demo-video-4-jan-2013-update-17.html#post492628)

For link 157 click: Providing UVB for shade dwellers like leopard geckos......Elizabeth Freer -- June 2019 (http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/gecko-care-sheets/55211-leopard-gecko-caresheet-eublepharis-macularius-demo-video-4-jan-2013-update-17.html#post492629)

For link 158 click: Gaze following in an asocial reptile (Eublepharis macularius) -- March 2019 pdf (http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/gecko-care-sheets/55211-leopard-gecko-caresheet-eublepharis-macularius-demo-video-4-jan-2013-update-17.html#post494238)

For link 159 click: Q & A with Scott Stahl, DVM -- June 2019 Herpeton Conference (video by Brian Kusko -- Triple B TV Episode 194) (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hIAUFqaCF0Q&feature=youtu.be&fbclid=IwAR147XS4IAOT8Y6jfcqBvv2_s3wWZN8HTapJsEdZG CFPJsge8FHXQep7RAM)

For link 160 click: First Records of the Common Leopard Gecko......in Nepal -- April 2019 (IRCF Reptiles and Amphibians Journal) (http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/gecko-care-sheets/55211-leopard-gecko-caresheet-eublepharis-macularius-demo-video-4-jan-2013-update-17.html#post495411)

For link 161 click: Arcadia Reptile's Deep Heat Projector......British Lady LeopardGecko -- June 2019 (http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/gecko-care-sheets/55211-leopard-gecko-caresheet-eublepharis-macularius-demo-video-4-jan-2013-update-17.html#post495768)

For link 162 click: Top 10 Safe Plants for Leopard Geckos | BIOACTIVE ARID TANK......British Lady LeopardGecko -- February 2020 (http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/gecko-care-sheets/55211-leopard-gecko-caresheet-eublepharis-macularius-demo-video-4-jan-2013-update-17.html#post496667)

For link 163 click: Slate Cheese Trays 16 x 12 x 0.3 inch for Leo Substrate . . . . . . Gutler -- March 2020 (http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/gecko-care-sheets/55211-leopard-gecko-caresheet-eublepharis-macularius-demo-video-4-jan-2013-update-17.html#post496785)

Avian Biotech International: 800-514-9672 [mail order crypto tests & fecals]
Bean Farm: 877-708-5882
Big Apple Pet Supply: 561-397-3977 (Beats advertised prices by 5%)
Fluker Farms: 800-735-8537
Josh’s Frogs: 800-691-8178 (May have Brewer's yeast in bulk)
Light Your Reptiles in the USA for Arcadia's lighting including ShadeDweller lighting: 207-588-7210 LightYourReptiles.com (http://www.lightyourreptiles.com/)

& www.reptilebasics.com/
Oxbow's Carnivore Care: 800-249-0366 (info@OxbowAnimalHealth.com)
Purina Layena Crumbles: 800-227-8941
Repashy: 855-737-2749
Reptile Basics: (336-308-5767) also carries Ultratherm heat mats [11 x 17 inches = $22]


Reptile Supply Company (Sacramento, California): Use email for customer service -- info@ReptileSupplyCo.com
SuperiorShippingSupplies.com: 818-787-7794
TSK Supply: 801-794-2247, Click: http://www.tsksupply.com/brands/UniHeat.html
(heat packs, Cryopak Phase 22's, et cetera)
Zoo Med: 888-496-6633

UK members can order from:

OnlineReptileShop -- https://www.onlinereptileshop.co.uk/
Swell Reptiles -- https://www.reptiles.swelluk.com/

Elizabeth Freer
08-10-2017, 10:40 PM
Click: UVB and Nocturnal Lizards - *BambooZoo (http://bamboozoo.weebly.com/uvb-and-nocturnal-lizards.html)

UVB and Nocturnal Reptiles......Andy Tedder

Andy Tedder

Andy Tedder explores a subject where much has been learnt over recent years, and one that is of increasing significance to reptile keepers, especially given the widespread popularity of leopard geckos today.

As the experienced amongst us (and by ‘experienced’, I mean older keepers!) will agree, our understanding of the care requirements of reptiles has progressed faster in the last 15 years than any time in the past. There is a good reason for this - namely, a concerted effort by both the herpetology and herpetoculture communities to gain better insights into the biology and physiology of this group of animals.

These advances have not been easy to achieve however, and nor has it always been simple to persuade keepers to accept and implement the resulting findings in the first instance. A current example of this is the use of lighting, specifically UVB lighting, for crepuscular and nocturnal lizards. The positive benefits of UVB exposureAs most reptile keepers will know, UVB radiation (290–315 nm), either via unfiltered natural sunlight or artificial vivarium lighting, causes pro-vitamin D (7-dehydrocholesterol) in the animal’s skin to form pre-vitamin D. This is then thermally isomerised into vitamin D₃ D3 [Holick et al., 1995]. After undergoing hydroxylation in the liver, it becomes 25-hydroxyvitamin D₃ [Holick and Clark, 1978], which is carried by the blood to the kidneys, where it is converted to its hormonally-active form known as 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D or calcitriol [Holick et al., 1971].

This hormone’s main function is to facilitate uptake of calcium from the gut of the animal. The importance of this chemical pathway should not be under-estimated. A failure to accumulate adequate active vitamin D₃ in the blood stream means that the body’s largest calcium reserve - the skeletal system - will otherwise become weakened. If not remedied, this can then soon lead to a calcium deficiency, generally described as metabolic bone disease (MBD).

For this reason, it is not an over-statement to suggest that calcium metabolism is one of the most important concerns for all reptile keepers, as far as their animals are concerned. Considering the importance of calcium metabolism to the overall health and well-being of reptiles therefore, it is somewhat surprising that UVB light is still often overlooked by many keepers of nocturnal species.

There are doubtless various reasons for this, although I am convinced the benefits that this type of supplementation bring far out-weigh any extra monetary costs. Perhaps the main argument advanced for not using a UVB source is that nocturnal lizards would not be exposed to sunlight for any length of time in the wild, and anyway, their diet is being supplemented with active vitamin D₃.

For me, however, having studied the evidence, it is clear that the use of lighting is beneficial. Many keepers may instead choose a vitamin supplement with a source of active vitamin D₃. Typical supplementation regimens will usually include two or three days of multivitamin use (which includes D₃) and then the addition of pure calcium or a multivitamin supplementation with each feed on the remaining days.

Does it work?
Anecdotal evidence suggests that using a routine as set out above can be effective. Many experienced keepers and professionals will tell you that this type of method has consistently worked for them, and indeed, in many cases, it would appear that it is possible to achieve correct calcium metabolism in this way. However, there are also some potential problems with it:

The vitamin D₃ source in many commercial supplements is subject to decay (as are all the components), with the rate of decay being unknown. This means that the supplement you purchase ‘new’ in the reptile shop could already have become less potent than was initially intended. Unfortunately, this means that without altering your previously effective supplementation routine, you might possibly be unknowingly under supplementing your animals.

Designing a supplementation regimen which is appropriate for your animal and provides optimal vitamin D₃ is very difficult, having noted the potential problems if this is not achieved. While it is important that both vitamin D₃ and calcium are not under-supplemented, it is also equally vital that they are not over-supplemented.

Gauging the amount of vitamin D₃ that your animal is actually receiving without blood testing is impossible. This means that incorrect supplementation may easily go un-noticed, and can potentially lead to problems. This difficulty can also be amplified by a variation in D₃ and calcium requirements within a species. For example, it is conceivable that females during ovulation and rapidly-growing juveniles require higher levels of D₃ than adult males.

Bearing these problems in mind, it becomes very difficult to see how a general oral supplementation regimen can suit all individuals within a species, let alone all species within a collection.

Further problems caused by vitamin D₃ deficiency
Calcium metabolism in both adult and juvenile lizards is not the only reason that UVB is important for captive lizards. Many studies have demonstrated a link between vitamin D₃ and captive hatching rates in reptiles. Over many years, both professional organisations concerned with conservation and private keepers have observed a problem with the failure of their captive-produced eggs to hatch at term [Zwart et al., 1992; Ferguson et al., 1996].

Seemingly viable eggs are produced by apparently healthy captive-raised adults, and incubate to full term but then fail to hatch. On further inspection, the fully developed, dead embryos appear normal but have poorly-mineralized skeletons. This problem has also been documented in various non-reptilian species and has been verified experimentally to be a the result of a deficiency of vitamin D in the egg yolk caused by hypovitaminosis D (a lack of this vitamin) in the mother [Narbaitz and Tsang, 1989; Packard and Clark, 1996]. This problem can be corrected in many species by providing sufficient UVB lighting for the adult female prior to egg-laying [Ferguson et al., 1996; Ferguson et al., 2002].

Is a UVB source really the answer?
We frequently hear that nocturnal species do not naturally expose themselves to UVB light for prolonged periods in the wild, and this is likely to be true. As a result however, the skin of nocturnal reptiles allows for greater conversion of pro-vitamin D to photoproducts when exposed to UVB from a lamp. This means that nocturnal species can utilize UVB in a much shorter space of time than their diurnal counterparts, whose reduced skin efficiency in terms of vitamin D photobiosynthesis probably reflects their increased exposure to sunlight. Basically, they don’t need to be as efficient in utilising UVB, as they are active throughout the period when UVB is most readily available - during the day.

This evolutionary adaptation allows nocturnal lizards to utilize UVB radiation in very short periods of time, and has been demonstrated experimentally in recent studies on diurnal species. These have concluded that a short period of UVB exposure (two hours) enables adequate concentrations of plasma vitamin D₃ metabolites to be maintained. On the other hand, it has also been shown conclusively that oral supplementation of D₃ does not allow this to happen [Oonincx et al. 2010; Fraser, 1983]. Unfortunately, what this study suggests is that although many keepers may not be experiencing problems when using oral supplements, they may nevertheless still not be fulfilling their reptiles’ requirements adequately.

What does this mean for your nocturnal species?
Well, while it is clear that there are plenty of examples where current supplementation regimens appear to be working, and according to many keepers, working well. I think it is also fair to say, however, that there are also situations where it is not working. The benefits to using UVB for short periods in each 24 hour cycle are also great. Allowing your animal to regulate its own vitamin D₃ and calcium metabolism may remove some of the guesswork associated with this type of supplementation, and reduce the number of cases of MBD.

It is also important to note at this point that changing the supplementation routine will be necessary, when you introduce a UVB source. This change would ideally involve a switch to a product which does not contain active vitamin D₃, but one that still meets the animal’s calcium and micro-nutrient requirements in general, incorporating other essential vitamins and minerals for example.

Behavioural impact of UVA
Beneficial lighting for reptiles is not restricted to UVB, and it can be important to allow for more natural behaviour and increase breeding success. Indeed, studies on the effects of UVA radiation have been shown to have a profound impact on certain behavioural traits in reptiles. In particular, UVA is responsible for an increase in behavioural traits associated with reproduction or courtship, along with social behaviour in certain species and territorial behaviour in many others. I believe that these traits are very important for many species, and lack of UVA light may explain why their behaviour may differ, certainly when compared with their wild counterparts.

In conclusion
In the past, the idea of UV lighting for nocturnal reptiles appeared something of a contentious issue, with keepers on both sides of the debate proposing alternative arguments. The evidence presented here gives firm evidence that both UVA and UVB may have a profound positive impact on the health, behaviour and reproductive success of nocturnal reptiles.

As with all changes in husbandry practices however, this evidence may not be universally accepted at present. Nevertheless, all keepers should strive to provide the best conditions possible for their animals, and in the case of vitamin D₃/ calcium metabolism, it would appear that oral supplementation may not be the best answer. In my experience, the positive benefits of using a UVA and UVB source in a vivarium housing nocturnal species far out-weigh the costs associated with using this type of lighting.

Ferguson GW, Gehrmann WH, Chen TC, Dierenfeld ES, Holick MF. 2002. Effects of Artificial Ultraviolet Light Exposure on Reproductive Success of the Female Panther Chameleon (Furcifer pardalis) in Captivity. Zoo Biology 21(6): 525-537.

Ferguson GW, Gehrmann WH, Karsten KB, Hammack SH, McRae M, Chen TC, Lung NP, Holick MF. 2003. Do Panther Chameleons Bask to Regulate Endogenous Vitamin D3 Production? Physiological and Biochemical Zoology 76(1): 52-59.

Ferguson GW, Gehrmann WH, Karsten KB, Landwer AJ, Carman EN, Chen TC, Holick MF. 2005. Ultraviolet Exposure and Vitamin D Synthesis in a Sun Dwelling and a Shade Dwelling Species of Anolis: Are There Adaptations for Lower Ultraviolet B and Dietary Vitamin D3 Availability in the Shade? Physiological and Biochemical Zoology 78(2): 193-200.

Ferguson GW, Jones JR, Gehrmann WH, Hammack SH, Talent LG, Hudson RD, Dierenfeld ES, Fitzpatrick MP, Frye FL, Holick MF, Chen TC, Lu Z, Gross TS, Vogel JJ. 1996. Indoor Husbandry of the Panther Chameleon (Chamaeleo [Furcifer] pardalis): Effects of Dietary Vitamins A and D and Ultraviolet Irradiation on Pathology and Life-History Traits. Zoo Biology 15(3): 279-299.

Fraser DR. 1983. The Physiological Economy of Vitamin D. Lancet 321: 969-972.

Holick MF. 2003. Vitamin D: A Millennium Perspective. Journal of Cellular Biochemistry 88(2): 296-307.

Holick MF, Richtand N, Mcneil S, Frommer J, Clark MB, Henley J, Holick SA, Potts JT. 1978. Mechanism for Synthesis of Vitamin-D3 in Skin During Sunlight Exposure. Clinical Research 26(3): A417-A417.

Holick MF, Schnoes HK, Deluca HF. 1971. Identification of 1,25-Dihydroxycholecalciferol, a Form of Vitamin-D3 Metabolically Active in Intestine. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 68(4): 803-7.

Holick MF, Tian XQ, Allen M. 1995. Evolutionary Importance for the Membrane Enhancement of the Production of Vitamin-D3 in the Skin of Poikilothermic Animals. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 92( 8 ): 3124-3126.

Narbaitz R, Tsang CP. 1989. Vitamin D Deficiency in the Chick Embryo: Effects on Prehatching Motility and on the Growth and Differentiation of Bones, Muscles and Parathyroid Glands. Calcif Tissue Int. 44: 348-355.

Oonincx DGAB, Stevens Y, van den Borne JJGC, van Leeuwen JPTM, Hendriks WH. 2010. Effects of Vitamin D-3 Supplementation and Uvb Exposure on the Growth and Plasma Concentration of Vitamin D-3 Metabolites in Juvenile Bearded Dragons (Pogona vitticeps). Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology B-Biochemistry & Molecular Biology 156(2): 122-128.

Packard MJ, Clark MB. 1996. Aspects of Calcium Regulation in Embryonic Lepidosaurians and Chelonians and a Review of Calcium Regulation in Embryonic Archosaurians. Physiol Zool 69: 435-466.

Zwart VP, Langerwerf BWA, Claesson H, Leunisse JJC, Mennes J, Riel CV, Lambrechts L, Kik MJL. 1992. Health Aspects in Breeding and Rearing Insectivorous Lizards from Moderate Climatic Zones. Zool Garten 62: 46-52.

Andy Tedder is an enthusiastic breeder of geckos, with a keen interest in their genetics. You can find his web site at www.glasgowgecko.co.uk

Elizabeth Freer
08-15-2017, 03:44 AM
Early stage metabolic bone disease (MBD) symptoms include uneven (lopsided) gait, walking on one or both "elbows", bowed limbs, belly dragging, and an underbite.

Oftentimes experienced keepers and breeders tweak supplements more than the manufacturer suggests based upon the health of their leopard geckos.

Powdered supplements stick to crickets and to dubia better than they do to mealworms or to superworms.

Here's the Repashy's Calcium Plus (all-in-one multivitamins) schedule that GU's acpart (Aliza Arzt) has used for all her leopard geckos ----> breeders and non-breeders. You may need 2 different powders.

-----> February 2019 -- "I've been using an 'every other' feeding schedule with Repashy's Calcium Plus since 2009. Adults get fed Mondays and Thursdays. They get Repashy on Thursdays.

"I fed juveniles and hatchlings 3 times a week. (They would be getting mealworms so there would always be some in their bowls.) For juveniles I'd dust with Repashy's Calcium Plus at every other feeding. For hatchlings 0-2 months old & any slow-growing leopard geckos under ~6 grams, I would also dust every other feeding in addition to keeping plain calcium in the cage 24/7."


Repashy's Calcium Plus (all-in-one multivitamins)
(withOUT UVB)

Early stage metabolic bone disease (MBD) symptoms include uneven (lopsided) gait, walking on "elbows", bowed limbs, belly dragging, and an underbite.

46004 + 46006 OR 46005
(click to enlarge)

1. Feeding & Supplementing HATCHLING leopard geckos - 0-2 months old & any slow-growing leopard geckos under ~6 grams ~ Feed 3x per week.

Feed Tuesdays, Thursdays, & Saturdays
Dust prey with Repashy's Calcium Plus (all-in-one) multivitamins at every other feeding
ALSO: Keep a bottle cap of plain calcium in the cage 24/7.
[See dusting chart below]

2. Feeding & Supplementing JUVENILE leopard geckos ~ Feed 3x per week.

Feed Tuesdays, Thursdays, & Saturdays
Dust prey with Repashy's Calcium Plus (all-in-one) multivitamins at every other feeding
[See dusting chart below]

3. Feeding & Supplementing ADULT leopard geckos ~ Feed 2x per week.

Mondays ~ feed (no dusting)
Thursdays ~ feed & dust prey with Repashy's Calcium Plus (all-in-one) multivitamins

\/ \/ \/

R = Repashy's Calcium Plus, Cc = pure precipitated calcium carbonate (withOUT vitamin D3)

Week 1 Repashy dusting (for HATCHLINGS & JUVENILES):
............R..................................... ......R...................

Week 2 Repashy dusting (for HATCHLINGS & JUVENILES):
..................................R............... ...........................

-----> For hatchlings 0-2 months old & any slow-growing leopard geckos under ~6 grams: Aliza also places a bottle cap of pure precipitated calcium carbonate (withOUT vitamin D3) in the cage 24/7.

Elizabeth Freer
01-11-2018, 01:32 AM

Have the box HAL (Held at Location) for the recipient's pick up!
ONLY ship Monday--Wednesday.
Monitor temperatures at FedEx Ship Center locations along the way as well as sending and receiving cities' airports.
Use weather.com
As summer approaches, strongly consider waiting or using other methods if any temperature exceeds 80*F (26.7*C)!

These methods work for 12 x 9 x 6 inch shipping boxes with 1/2 inch (or 3/4 inch) styrofoam insulation.

Several years ago I switched to 72 hour UniHeat packs for any shipment at any time. A "2-day delay" = 72 hours from shipping time. Some places even sell 96 hour UniHeat packs!

(click to enlarge)

Make certain the gecko(s) are especially well-hydrated for several days right before their trip!

Activate your 72 hour UniHeat pack @ 6 AM if you plan to seal up the box about noon. That gives ample time for the heat pack to reach its maximum temperature and then begin to level off.

Place each gecko in a separate ventilated deli cup. Loosely pack DRY paper towel strips around the gecko inside his deli cup to prevent him from bouncing around.

Caution -- Make certain the paper towel strips surrounding the gecko in the deli cup and in the box are DRY. If the paper towels are damp at all, they will cause the contents of the UniHeat pack to clump. “Clumping”/hardening shortens the UniHeat pack's life.

At the present time I use styrofoam "peanuts" as packing around each deli cup. Some "peanuts" dissolve when wet. Don't use those.

Especially in winter the ideal thickness of styrofoam insulation is 3/4 inch thick.

Use a Phillips screwdriver to poke 1-4 small hole(s) through the cardboard and a second small hole through the styrofoam. These holes are offset somewhat (or not). Place a single inch-wide strip of tape on the edge of each bottom and top flap (8 strips in all). Solidly tape the center bottom and top. Be careful NOT to tape over these ventilation hole(s)!

With the heat pack’s ventilation holes facing inwards towards the gecko(s), place the heat pack against the far long wall of the box or in between the gecko deli cups, NOT directly against the styrofoam hole.

Depending upon the routing of the box and the destination's temperatures, you may wish to increase the number of holes you poke through the styrofoam and cardboard. To reduce heat output a little, loosely wrap the heat pack with 1-2 layers of paper towels.

Box Enclosures:
Care sheet(s), extra shipping label, extra box label identifying contents and number of lizards, & complete emergency details on reaching sender, recipient, & shipping company's contact person

Box Labels:
Include common name(s), scientific name(s), numbers, & sizes (weights and/or lengths)

Actual Shipping:
Use a company that specializes in shipping reptiles. That reduces shipping costs and provides extra measures of experience and safety from your home to a gecko's next home.

Reptiles2You is awesome. Debbie Price gives top notch customer service!

ShipYourReptiles & Reptiles Express are other shipping options.

Elizabeth Freer
01-11-2018, 01:34 AM
Click: Albey's How to Incubate Leopard Gecko Eggs (http://www.albeysreptiles.com/incubate-eggs.htm)

Elizabeth Freer
01-20-2018, 07:02 AM
Click: http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/leopard-geckos-husbandry-housing-and-heating/84556-uvb-lighting-debate.html#post480463

Elizabeth Freer
03-29-2018, 02:24 AM
Click: #6---Gutload Ingredients for Bugs & Worms.....contributed by Olimpia -- August 2013 (http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/leopard-geckos-food-and-feeding-issues-/68574-cricket-guidelines-post459059.html#post459059)

~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~

"Lettuce (except dark, leafy greens) is just water and nutritionally irrelevant. People don't even give lettuce to tortoises and iguanas because it's worthless as food. The same could be said for potatoes. Fish flakes are very high in protein and this can lead to a build-up of uric acid in feeders/reptiles and end up causing gout. A little now and then is fine but this should never be the bulk of any gutload.

"A commercial gutloading food like Bug Burger or Superload (both by Repashy), Cricket Crack, Dinofuel, etc. is going to make your life easier AND provide a nutritious diet to your crickets at the same time. Avoid Fluker's gutloads, as they are super feeble in their formulas.

"If you opt for making your own gutload at home, here is a list of great ingredients to use:
Best: mustard greens, turnip greens, dandelion leaves, collard greens, escarole lettuce, papaya, watercress, and alfalfa.
Good: sweet potato, carrots, oranges, mango, butternut squash, kale, apples, beet greens, blackberries, bok choy, and green beans.
Dry food: bee pollen, organic non-salted sunflower seeds, spirulina, dried seaweed, flax seed, and organic non-salted almonds.
Avoid as much as possible: potatoes, cabbage, iceberg lettuce, romaine lettuce, spinach, broccoli, tomatoes, corn, grains, beans, oats, bread, cereal, meat, eggs, dog food, cat food, fish food, canned or dead insects, vertebrates.

------>"As far as how to keep crickets, a large plastic storage container will work well, but really anything with smooth sides. On a large plastic container you can cut out a panel on two sides and glue on aluminum screening (and do the same on the lid) and this will provide plenty of air flow. Bad air is the #1 killer of crickets, along with poor hydration, so having good airflow will make the difference if you start getting into bulk orders of crickets.

------>"And I just dust mine using a large plastic cup. You don't need to coat crickets in a thick layer of calcium. Just put a pinch of calcium into the cup, get some crickets into the cup, swirl, and dump. The crickets end up evenly but lightly coated and there isn't any excess calcium left over."

"Hope that helps!"

(Last edited by Olimpia; 08-21-2013 at 02:03 PM.)

~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~

Thanks to GU's SpottedDragon on 30 April 2019:

Click: http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/leopard-geckos-food-and-feeding-issues-/86899-gutloading-tomato-post492403.html#post492403

"Yeah, I'd also avoid tomato, I'm glad you pulled it.

"For explanation - it is a deadly nightshade, and the leaves contain a mild (in small amounts) poison that is meant to keep insects and grazing animals from eating the plant. The toxin is called Solanine and in mammals causes hypersalivation, inappetence, severe gastrointestinal upset, depression, weakness, dilated pupils, slow heart rate...in a reptile I'm not sure what would happen - but it could upset the system."

Elizabeth Freer
07-08-2018, 07:42 AM
See Dr. Fran Baines' Advancing Herpetological Husbandry Facebook group for a July 2018 discussion and the complete pdf. Join Advancing Herpetological Husbandry to read this pdf.

Click: Evaluating the Clinical Effects of Short Duration
Ultraviolet B Radiation Exposure in Leopard Geckos
(Eublepharis macularius) (https://cdn.ymaws.com/arav.site-ym.com/resource/resmgr/Files/Proceedings_2015/Main_Conference/205.pdf)

Contributed by Bas Veth:

"Leopard geckos are a popular pet reptile, and nutritional disease, especially NSHP, is a common finding in these animals. The results of this study demonstrate that short- term exposure to UVB radiation is sufficient to increase circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 concentrations in leopard geckos. Because the prey species offered to leopard geckos in captivity are naturally low in vitamin D (e.g., crickets, mealworms), exposure to UVB may help offset dietary deficiencies, or concerns about hypervitaminosis associated with supplements. However, there remains much we still need to learn about this subject. Prospective, longitudinal studies are required to determine reference intervals for 25- hydroxyvitamin D3 in leopard geckos, as well as how much UVB exposure and dietary vitamin D are required to achieve these concentrations. In addition, it is important for us to determine the role vitamin D plays in the pathophysiology of NSHP in this species. Until further research is done, the authors believe that leopard geckos should be provided protected UVB exposure to ensure that they can behaviorally control their vitamin D concentrations."


"In the research article it also states that when observed all geckos were hiding during daytime, yet those with access to UV light were able to bask in this matter enough to increase their D3 levels significantly over the control group. These geckos simply bask by sticking a leg or tail under the light, they’ll likely not lay in a rock for full exposure unless fully comfortable, and the rest they just receive while walking around during lights on.

"It’s a huge misconception that people believe that
1) reptiles need long term deliberate exposure to UV (ie basking) to get UV
2) they need full body exposure

"Nobody would deprive a beardie from UV light because they so obviously bask, but those species that do not do that, like Leos or Cresties, somehow people believe it’s not that necessary."

Elizabeth Freer
09-15-2018, 10:40 PM
We never know precisely what's in store for our geckos or for us down the road.

Keeping our leopard geckos in tip top shape by feeding them a varied and highly nutritious diet is one good preventative. Then one doesn't need to play "catch-up".
Knowing our leopard gecko's thermal gradient and keeping it in good proportion is important too. A leo will be out and about more when he has a nice warm floor. (Not a wee warm spot with a huge cool area!)
Feeding our leo's bugs and worms the best diet you can is vital. What's inside the feeders is passed on to our geckos.
Carefully using good and appropriate supplements!
Having a large enclosure like Exo Terra's 36 x 18 x 12 inches tall is another preventative. Then a leo has space to exercise.
If our leo's enclosure is about 4 feet long, purchase Arcadia or Zoo Med UVB lighting. As of 2018 Arcadia sells ShadeDweller lighting. In the USA ShadeDweller lighting is available here (207-588-7210): LightYourReptiles.com (http://www.lightyourreptiles.com/)
When we use appropriate UVB rays, @ 1 feeding per month also lightly dust all feeders with a backup dose of a reputable powdered calcium with D3 supplement.
Use a reputable powdered multivitamin supplement without D3 if you're using UVB (+ pure calcium carbonate with D3 as described above). Lightly dust all feeders @ 1 feeding per week with that multivitamin.
Consider adding Arcadia EarthPro's CalciumPro Mg (pure calcium + magnesium) in addition to UVB or to a calcium with D3 supplement. CalciumPro Mg is available in the USA from LightYourReptiles.com (http://www.lightyourreptiles.com/)
Quarantine new animals to avoid introducing diseases to your captive animals.
Never return uneaten feeders that have been in an enclosure back to the feeder bin.

Elizabeth Freer
11-14-2018, 06:08 AM
Click: How much UVB does my reptile need?......Dr. Frances M. Baines, + -- January 2016 (https://www.jzar.org/jzar/article/view/150/89?fbclid=IwAR1JQeal_1Ghb4Pd1W_7t3os-j71dZQi3m0WQDTivU5MGoMWZFpS3XGUIAA)

For the abstract and CV click: https://www.jzar.org/jzar/article/view/150

Elizabeth Freer
12-09-2018, 04:06 PM
I shared this research with someone knowledgeable. That person indicated that this study should be "taken with a grain of salt" for multiple reasons.

Very small study groups -- only 5 animals per group.
((Liver biopsies should have been done before and after.))
Group #1 = Cod liver oil group Retinol should have been used.
Group #2 = Beta carotene group
Group #3 = There was NO control group.
This research was finally published in a relatively obscure journal.

Based upon chameleon research prior to this 2015/2016 study, it was discovered that some lizards didn't absorb beta carotene very well, that some lizards needed a little retinol first. Leopard geckos still DO require a wee bit of pre-formed Vitamin A (retinol) @ 1 feeding per week in order to metabolize pro-formed Vitamin A (beta carotene).

Click: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/325342676_Evaluation_of_b-carotene_assimilation_in_leopard_geckos_Eublephari s_macularius


"Although leopard geckos (Eublepharis macularius) are commonly kept under human care, their vitamin requirements are largely unknown. Many invertebrate preys display a low vitamin A concentration; thus, gut-loading insects with vitamin A or carotenoids is a common practice. The objective of this prospective experimental study was to investigate whether dietary supplementation with β-carotene, including prey gut-loading, leads to sufficient vitamin A hepatic storage and prevents epithelial squamous metaplasia development in leopard geckos. Ten clinically healthy female leopard geckos were randomly divided in two groups with various supplementations: a group receiving vitamin A supplementation and a group receiving β-carotene. Insects were gut-loaded continuously with a supplement containing vitamin A or β-carotene, depending on the group. Oral supplementation with cod liver oil or carrot juice was administered weekly to each lizard from "vitamin A group" and "carotenoid group" respectively. After 10 weeks of supplementation, surgical hepatic biopsies were obtained in three geckos of each group while the two remaining geckos were euthanized to undergo complete necropsy. Hepatic vitamin A concentration was determined for each lizard (n = 10) by ultra-performance liquid chromatography. Histopathology revealed hepatocellular vacuolization and vitellogenic follicles in five females. Epithelial squamous metaplasia was not observed in any of the geckos. Hepatic vitamin A concentration was significantly higher in the carotenoid-supplemented group than in the vitamin A-supplemented group (p = 0.03). Our results suggest that in leopard geckos, dietary supplementation with β-carotene allows sufficient vitamin A hepatic storage."

Much appreciation goes to Geckos Unlimited's Sg612 for sharing!

Elizabeth Freer
03-01-2019, 02:28 AM
Any new gecko should be quarantined for a minimum of 90 days. That gives adequate time to check for parasites, cryptosporidiosis, and the beginnings of coccidia plus. 3-6 months quarantine are recommended if your new gecko is imported or wild caught.

Crypto is highly contagious! Any gecko or reptile suspected of having Cryptosporidiosis should also be immediately quarantined as far as possible from other reptiles. Handle that reptile last!

Set up the new animal as far as possible from your current animals.
Set up the quarantined animal as simply as possible -- with a paper towel floor and homemade plastic hides that can be tossed, if necessary.
Feed the quarantined gecko last. (Maybe use vinyl gloves.)
Toss uneaten prey.
Never share prey between geckos or toss uneaten prey back into the feeding bin!
Do not share any supplies such as thermometer probes or feeding tongs between cages.
Wash hands thoroughly between handling geckos.

The quarantine area should ideally be in a separate room apart from your established geckos. Stringent sanitation methods MUST be followed!

Elizabeth Freer
05-10-2019, 10:30 PM
Early stage metabolic bone disease (MBD) symptoms include uneven (lopsided) gait, walking on one or both "elbows", bowed limbs, belly dragging, and an underbite.

The Reptile Supply Company based in Lodi, California stocks Zoo Med's ReptiVite multivitamins withOUT D3.

***** It's crucial for your leopard gecko to have an enclosure larger than a 10 gallon (20 x 10.5 x 12 inches tall) prior to experimenting with UVB. There are downsides to UVB too. *****

A 20 long: 30 x 12 x 12 inches tall IS the bare minimum enclosure size when providing UVB for any leopard gecko! A leo will need at least 3 hides to dodge the rays when he feels the urge.

For additional information click 157: Providing UVB for shade dwellers like leopard geckos......Elizabeth Freer -- April 2019 (http://www.geckosunlimited.com/community/gecko-care-sheets/55211-leopard-gecko-caresheet-eublepharis-macularius-demo-video-4-jan-2013-update-17.html#post492629)

Elizabeth Freer
05-10-2019, 10:36 PM
Here goes:

UVB Weekly Schedule 155 for leopard geckos 12-18 months old
(with UVB)

Early stage metabolic bone disease (MBD) symptoms include uneven (lopsided) gait, walking on one or both "elbows", bowed limbs, belly dragging, and an underbite.

The Reptile Supply Company based in Lodi, California stocks Zoo Med's ReptiVite multivitamins withOUT D3.

Powdered supplement recommendations for leopard geckos 12-18 months old depend upon how much your leo has grown thus far and whether he/she is walking strongly. Leopard geckos usually reach maximum size at about 18 months old.

47458 + 47459 OR 47457

+ 47468 @ 1 feeding per month
(click to enlarge)

Feed lightly dusted prey 3x per week.

Monday > > crickets or dubia lightly dusted with Zoo Med's ReptiVite multivitamins withOUT D3
Wednesday > > crickets or dubia lightly dusted with pure precipitated calcium carbonate withOUT D3 (Zoo Med's Repti Calcium or NOW human brand calcium)
Friday > > crickets or dubia lightly dusted with pure precipitated calcium carbonate withOUT D3 (Zoo Med's Repti Calcium or NOW human brand calcium)
Saturday > > Optional: mealworms, superworms, or black soldier fly larvae (Phoenix worms) >> no dusting

***** When your leopard gecko is taking advantage of appropriate UVB rays, Dr. Fran Baines (Reptile Lighting group's lighting guru) strongly recommends a backup dose of powdered D3 @ 1 feeding per month! Just substitute 1 D3 calcium dusting for 1 plain calcium dusting that week only. *****

Elizabeth Freer
05-10-2019, 10:38 PM
Here goes:

UVB Weekly Schedule 156 for leopard geckos 18 months old +(with UVB)

Early stage metabolic bone disease (MBD) symptoms include uneven (lopsided) gait, walking on one or both "elbows", bowed limbs, belly dragging, and an underbite.

The Reptile Supply Company based in Lodi, California stocks Zoo Med's ReptiVite multivitamins withOUT D3.

Leopard geckos usually reach maximum size at about 18 months old.

47461 + 47462 OR 47460
+ 47466 @ 1 feeding per month
(click to enlarge)

Feed lightly dusted prey 2x per week.

Monday > > crickets or dubia lightly dusted with Zoo Med's ReptiVite multivitamins withOUT D3
Thursday > > crickets or dubia lightly dusted with pure precipitated calcium carbonate withOUT D3 (Zoo Med's Repti Calcium or NOW human brand calcium)
Saturday > > Optional: mealworms, superworms, or black soldier fly larvae (Phoenix worms) > > no dusting

***** When your leopard gecko is taking advantage of appropriate UVB rays, Dr. Fran Baines (Reptile Lighting group's lighting guru) strongly recommends a backup dose of powdered D3 @ 1 feeding per month! Just substitute 1 D3 calcium dusting for 1 plain calcium dusting that week only. *****

Elizabeth Freer
05-10-2019, 10:53 PM
UVB and heat go hand in hand. Place your UVB bulb or tube directly above the warm end of your gecko's enclosure. Place the fixture directly upon the enclosure's screen top rather than at some angle. That way your gecko receives full benefit of the valuable rays. I've not read about minimum temps which facilitate UVB absorption.

When providing UVB for shade dwellers like leopard geckos, Dr. Fran Baines (DVM and lighting guru) recommends a backup dose of a powdered D3 supplement @ 1 feeding per month.

In 2018 Arcadia developed ShadeDweller lighting.

UVB output of all bulbs and tubes weakens over time! Follow the manufacturer's recommendation for replacing that bulb or tube. If you wish to check the output on your own, purchase a Solarmeter 6.5R (or equivalant) to measure the UV Index.

Reptile Lighting Information (http://www.reptilesmagazine.com/Reptile-Health/Habitats-Care/Reptile-Lighting-Information/)
An In-Depth Look At UV Light And Its Proper Use With Reptiles (http://www.reptilesmagazine.com/An-In-Depth-Look-At-UV-Light-And-Its-Proper-Use-With-Reptiles/)

For $50 off a Solarmeter 6.5R check out the wholesale Reptile Supply Company (800-750-9065) located in Sacramento, California and maybe even Reptile Basics (336-308-5767).

Elizabeth Freer
08-08-2019, 03:11 AM
"Case in Point: Actually leos Cheeto & Alberich were just watching TV with keeper Susan."
Photo & link credits to: Susan Kaisaki

"Gaze following is the ability to utilise information from another’s gaze. It is most often seen in a social context or as a reflexive response to interesting external stimuli. Social species can potentially reveal utilisable knowledge about another’s future intentions by attending to the target of their gaze. However, in even more fundamental situations, being sensitive to another’s gaze can also be useful such as when it can facilitate greater foraging efficiency or lead to earlier predator detection. While gaze sensitivity has been shown to be prevalent in a number of social species, little is currently known about the potential for gaze following in asocial species. The current study investigated whether an asocial reptile, the leopard gecko (Eublepharis macularius), could reliably use the visual indicators of attention to follow the gaze of a conspecific around a barrier. We operated three trial conditions and found subjects (N = 6) responded significantly more to the conspecific demonstrator looking up at a laser stimulus projected onto an occluder during the experimental condition compared to either of two control conditions. The study’s findings point toward growing evidence for gaze-following ability in reptiles, who are typically categorised as asocial. Furthermore, our findings support developing comparative social cognition research showing the origins of gaze following and other cognitive behaviours that may be more widely distributed across taxonomic groups than hitherto thought."

Click: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10071-018-1230-y?fbclid=IwAR0-nCuurikgJ7Fi-utl65SlcOpEE3Xd8OhqafZT2xY7HzF3JaNSHBT_sxI

Elizabeth Freer
10-19-2019, 02:26 AM
Q & A with Scott Stahl, DVM -- June 2019 Herpeton Conference (video by Brian Kusko -- Triple B TV Episode 194)
Published: 17 October 2019

"Today we're bringing you back to herpeton.org for another great presentation. This week we are going to hear from Scott Stahl. Scott is an exotic vet here in the United States and has one of the largest practices out there that is dedicated to reptiles. In today's talk he is answering questions from the crowd and will cover topics such as the possibility of vaccination against disease in reptiles, metabolic bone disease or what I should probably refer to now as nutritional secondary hyperparathyroidism, and even IBD. Scott was one of my favorite speakers at the event. He had a great attitude which goes a very long way with me and is really has a wealth of information for all of us keepers, breeders and hobbyists alike.

Check out Scott's book https://amzn.to/35FC1xd"

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hIAUFqaCF0Q&feature=youtu.be&fbclid=IwAR147XS4IAOT8Y6jfcqBvv2_s3wWZN8HTapJsEdZG CFPJsge8FHXQep7RAM

11-06-2019, 08:46 AM
Thanks to Lukas Pola (via Yuri Kaverkin).


That link won't work for us, it goes to the file on your computer. Do you have a proper online link?

Elizabeth Freer
11-07-2019, 06:33 AM
When one clicks this link, this PDF downloads automatically: https://lookaside.fbsbx.com/file/First_Records_of_the_Common_Leopard_Geck.pdf?token =AWwSdCYutL7Ia3wjeCmGkoooLbJdRlc63bjwSzwzCaQIwEK-yLCYB8Xy_EpZ-4Miqpmn7R8b9dj-lPTLZ-Mr7TRpkcGlcgYbuImvtGp3qT8gCaWvT9ImosM-M6V_iDqwqOW1dLjN3-l8HlfrY4hBcspt2vOAvPOKEUVhILmKttnOL2Gt9aNB9i5iqcjf hn4t1wCcixeW9y4xm5C6KEQyPhqZ

"First Records of the Common Leopard Gecko, Eublepharis macularius (Blyth 1854) (Eublepharidae), in Nepal"
Authors: Yam Bahadur Rawat 1, Kul Bahadur Thapa 2, Santosh Bhattarai 3, and Karan Bahadur Shah 2

1. Department of National Parks and Wildlife Conservation, Shuklaphanta National Park, Kanchanpur, Nepal
2. Himalayan Nature, POB- 10918, Lazimpat, Kathmandu, Nepal
3. National Trust for Nature Conservation-Biodiversity Conservation Center, Ratnanagar-06, Chitwan-44204, Nepal (santosh.bhattarai@hotmail.com)

Much appreciation goes to Lukas Pola (via Yuri Kaverkin).

Elizabeth Freer
12-18-2019, 08:34 PM
Besides Ceramic Heat Emitters (CHEs) other options for overhead heat are Arcadia's Deep Heat Projector bulbs. Please check out YouTube reviews.

The DHP uses either 50 watt or 80 watt bulbs.

1. NEW: Arcadia Reptile's Deep Heat Projector! Powerful 80w E27 Infrared Reptile Lamp
Published: 7 June 2019


2. FULL Deep Heat Projector Review + Installation Tips | LEOPARD GECKO
by British lady LeopardGecko
Published: 16 March 2019

Click: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xGmwpUsImLo&feature=youtu.be&fbclid=IwAR236U1vtty9V-OpuPwzxdKK6oLzlDKmS9q5N_bjbI6_TbT59BKXNkhy-UM

Elizabeth Freer
03-05-2020, 02:42 AM
Top 10 Safe Plants for Leopard Geckos | BIOACTIVE ARID TANK
Published: 23 February 2020


Elizabeth Freer
03-15-2020, 05:53 AM
With much appreciation to Gecko Unlimited's Gutler for recommending these 16" x 12" x 0.3 inch thick slate cheese trays. Gutler purchased 2 cheese trays for his leopard gecko Ignatius' 36 x 18 x 12 inch Exo Terra enclosure. :)

These slate pieces come in various sizes including ~4 inch x ~4 inch coaster size.

***** 16" x 12" x 0.3 inch thick
Click: https://www.amazon.com/gp/product/B01J7EEFWI/ref=ox_sc_saved_title_2?smid=A3M7N1SGT524AY&psc=1

11.75 x 7.9 x 0.25 in thick -- 6 trays
Click: https://www.amazon.com/Slate-Cheese-Boards-Charcuterie-Restaurant/dp/B07FM6R341/ref=sr_1_7?dchild=1&keywords=stone+age+slate+cheese+board&qid=1584270240&s=home-garden&sr=1-7